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Rice in Vietnam emissions, NDC planning and actions, feasibility analysis of LED options

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Presented by Bjoern Ole Sander as part of the USAID & CCAFS Low-Emission Rice webinar on 29 May 2019. For more details about this webinar visit the introduction presentation (Land use and climate research by the CGIAR, supported by USAID's Office of Global Climate Change) or visit the CCAFS and USAID websites.

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Rice in Vietnam emissions, NDC planning and actions, feasibility analysis of LED options

  1. 1. Dr. Bjoern Ole Sander Representative to Vietnam, Senior Scientist International Rice Research Institute Rice in Vietnam: Emissions, NDC planning and actions, feasibility analysis of LED options
  2. 2. GHG emissions from rice production in Vietnam VN Nat. Comm.: • Emissions from rice sector are higher than emissions from transport sector • Emissions from rice are around 50% of all agricultural emissions Carlson et al., 2016 • Vietnam emits ~10% of global methane emissions from rice 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% VIETNAM Shareoftotalnational GHGemissions Transport emissions Rice emissions Low-emissions rice in Vietnam The International Rice Research Institute
  3. 3. Vietnam’s Ag NDC action plan Low-emissions rice in Vietnam The International Rice Research Institute A3, A9: Applying alternate wetting and drying (AWD) irrigation and system of rice intensification A15: Improving irrigation technology in planting coffee A16: Mid-season water drainage A8: Reusing waste products of crop production A14: Improving agricultural processing technologies and waste treatment in the livestock sector A1: Biogas development in the livestock sector A11: Improving livestock feeding portion A17: Improving livestock waste treatment technologies and reusing it for organic fertilizer A12: Improving technologies and techniques in aquaculture and waste treatment A18: Adjusting the proportion of low capacity vessels unsuitable for fishing grounds and planning routes and zones for seafood exploitation
  4. 4. LED options analyzed in this study Alternate wetting and drying (AWD) Delaying re-irrigation until water level has gone down to ~15cm below soil surface. Reduces CH4 field emissions by ~50%. Fertilizer deep placement Applying fertilizer below the soil surface (often slow release fertilizer). Reduces N2O emissions. Short duration varieties Switching to varieties with a shorter maturity duration. Reduces CH4 field emissions ~proportional to reduced growing time. Sustainable straw management Reduced rates of incorporation and burning of straw. Reduces CH4 field emissions and black carbon emissions. Low-emissions rice in Vietnam The International Rice Research Institute
  5. 5. Prioritization of LED options LED T&Ps Scaling area Mitigation potential Barriers Enabling Conditions - Incentives Co-Benefits AWD large high medium medium medium Fertilizer deep placement medium low high high medium Short duration varieties small low low low high Sustainable straw mngmt large medium medium medium high Low-emissions rice in Vietnam The International Rice Research Institute
  6. 6. Partial straw removal provides multiple benefits: 1) retain soil health by restoring C and K 2) create profit through straw sales 3) reduce GHG compared to incorporation Coordinated water management can minimize GHG emissions even with straw being incorporated Straw removal BurningIncorp. Romasanta et al., 2017 Tariq et al., 2016 Straw management for greenhouse gas mitigation Low-emissions rice in Vietnam The International Rice Research Institute
  7. 7. Rice straw management facts in Mekong River Delta a:https://www.gso.gov.vn/default_en.aspx?tabid=778; b: estimated based on rice production, yield, and the ratio between rice and rice straw yield; c: assessments made in IRRI BMZ project; d: estimated using assessment made in 2013 Low-emissions rice in Vietnam The International Rice Research Institute
  8. 8. Straw Management Practices: CBA of straw mushroom production Low-emissions rice in Vietnam The International Rice Research Institute Possible reduction? - Reduce cost of straw - Increase yield NET PROFIT : USD 0.50 – 1.00 / kg mushroom [ USD 0.50 – 1.00 / 10kg straw ] Possible reduction? - Increase mechanization [ watering, turning, etc. ] Hung et al., 2016 Land Rental 19.9% Rice Straw 25.8% Spores 4.8% Activators 1.2% Power 0.6% Labor 47.7%
  9. 9. ✔ Biodegradable products from rice straw: Fruit baskets, flower pots, cups, plates,… ✔ Rice straw foamed materials used for transportation of fragile products to prevent damage Innovative rice straw products Low-emissions rice in Vietnam The International Rice Research Institute
  10. 10. Low-emissions rice in Vietnam The International Rice Research Institute Flooded field is left to dry out When water level drops to a threshold (15cm below soil surface), the field is irrigated again Perforated tube for observing water level in the soil AWD saves up to 30% of irrigation water and reduces GHG emissions by ~50%
  11. 11. AWD suitability maps • Based on water balance model • Show when and where AWD is suitable considering biophysical factors (rice extent, precipitation, soil texture, evapo-transpiration) AWD suitability (103 ha) Suitability class JAH MAH SDH Highly suitable 1,987 2,057 374 Moderately suitable 82 299 310 Lowly suitable 120 343 1,771 Not suitable 290 235 280 Low-emissions rice in Vietnam The International Rice Research Institute
  12. 12. Provincial planning: An Giang province Low-emissions rice in Vietnam The International Rice Research Institute • Provincial climatic suitability maps based on high resolution soil maps • Identification of most suitable area per province • Guiding of extension work and training Winter-Spring Spring-Summer Summer-Autumn
  13. 13. “Socio-economic” suitability maps: An Giang province • Include expert knowledge through survey with extension officers and DARD officials • Rated factors like irrigation infrastructure, farmer awareness, capacity of cooperative, etc. per commune • Used to adjust climatic maps by factors not observable by satellites Low-emissions rice in Vietnam The International Rice Research Institute Winter-Spring Spring-Summer Summer-Autumn
  14. 14. B.Sander@irri.org Thank you!

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