Emerging techniques for soil  carbon measurementsD. Milori, A. Segnini, W. Da Silva, A. Posadas, V. Mares, R. Quiroz, & L....
OUTLINE•Emerging techniques for…•Quick overview of selected emerging techniques•Examples of field measurements•Data input ...
Emerging SC measuring      techniques for...•Geospatial baseline•Quantity and quality of SC stocks•Field-base measurements...
Mostly used SOM techniques in developing countries                   &/or
Examples of emerging techniques for                                               SOC measurements                        ...
Infrared Spectroscopy for rapid soil                 characterization•    Rapid, Low cost                                 ...
LIBS System  Source: Da Silva et al., 2008
LIF Emission spectrum                                                        soil                   3                     ...
Bench and portable LIF correlate well with                  EPR findings                                                  ...
SOM characterization with          13C-NMRNuclear Magnetic ResonanceEMBRAPA Lab
9                                           0-2.5 cm                    8                      2.5-5 cm                   ...
On-going analysis in KenyaForest               Tea          Degraded                                               Native ...
Results from EMBU-Kenya                                                        CARBON STOCKS# (kg m-2)                    ...
LIF results:KenyaHumification degree or carbon stability (HLIF) of whole soils obtainedthrough Laser Induced Fluorescence ...
Modeling Carbon Dynamics in Soils:                                                            Weather data used to        ...
Space-time scaling weather/climate data                                                                                   ...
AfSIS✓60 primary sentinel sites     9,600 sampling plots     19,200 “standard” soil samples     ~ 38,000 soil spectra     ...
Sampling-transect to assess carbon contents and stocks in Southern Peru.                                                  ...
Selected characteristics of the sampling sites. sites               Ilo          Moquegua           Torata                ...
Carbon stocks in diverse     Andean soils
LIF results: AndesHumification degree or carbon stability (HLIF) of whole soils obtainedthrough Laser Induced Fluorescence...
Changes in potential potato (improved and native) in Peru: 2000-2050
As temperature and presence of pest increase in the     Andes Potatoes are planted in higher grounds1975:(4000-4150msnm)20...
Peatlands and otherland uses in theAndean highplateau
Potential loss of soil carbon stocks due to cropping    peatlands and grasslands in Peru & Bolivia                        ...
Summary•Emerging SC measuring techniques / tools & MRV•Further field testing under different agroecological conditions &cr...
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Quiroz - techniques for measuring soil C

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Roberto Quiroz, Emerging techniques for soil carbon measurements (presentation from Mitigation session at CCAFS Science Workshop, December 2010)

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Quiroz - techniques for measuring soil C

  1. 1. Emerging techniques for soil carbon measurementsD. Milori, A. Segnini, W. Da Silva, A. Posadas, V. Mares, R. Quiroz, & L. Martin-Neto& contributions from L. Claessens & K. Shepherd
  2. 2. OUTLINE•Emerging techniques for…•Quick overview of selected emerging techniques•Examples of field measurements•Data input for SC modeling•A “synthetic” scenario•Summary
  3. 3. Emerging SC measuring techniques for...•Geospatial baseline•Quantity and quality of SC stocks•Field-base measurements•Better input for models•Assessing tradeoffs
  4. 4. Mostly used SOM techniques in developing countries &/or
  5. 5. Examples of emerging techniques for SOC measurements 45 0-2.5 cm 2.5-5 cm 40 5-10 cm 10-20 cmLIF intensity (a.u.) / C (g kg )-1 20-30 cm 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 460 480 500 520 540 560 580 600 620 640 660 λ (nm)
  6. 6. Infrared Spectroscopy for rapid soil characterization• Rapid, Low cost Parameter Total N R2 0.9 PCs 8• Reproducible Total C Organic C 0.92 0.92 6 6 pH 0.89 10• Predicts many soil functional properties Ca 0.95 9 Source: K. Shepherd (ICRAF) K 0.81 10
  7. 7. LIBS System Source: Da Silva et al., 2008
  8. 8. LIF Emission spectrum soil 3 calcinate and treated soil λexcitation = 458 nm Humification Degree: HLIF = LIF Area/total carbonIntensity (a.u.) 2 1 0 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 λ (nm) Milori et al., SSSAJ, 2006.; González-Pérez et al., Geoderma, 2007
  9. 9. Bench and portable LIF correlate well with EPR findings 5.0 R=0.93; P<0.0001 4.5 LIF bench system: HLIF (a.u.) 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 -1 17 EPR [(spins g C) x 10 ]Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR)EMBRAPA Lab.
  10. 10. SOM characterization with 13C-NMRNuclear Magnetic ResonanceEMBRAPA Lab
  11. 11. 9 0-2.5 cm 8 2.5-5 cm 5-10 cm 10-20 cm 7 20-30 cmspins (x 10 ) g C-1 617 5 4 3 2 A B Bofedales (wetlands) Source: Segnini et al., 2011
  12. 12. On-going analysis in KenyaForest Tea Degraded Native veg. vegetation
  13. 13. Results from EMBU-Kenya CARBON STOCKS# (kg m-2) Area 1 Area 2 Area 3sites Forest Tea Coffee + Coffee Native Rotation Native Rotation depth (cm) eucalyptus vegetation crops vegetation crops 0-2.5 1.8 ±0.1 0.6 ±0.0 0.6 ±0.0 0.5 ±0.0 0.3 ±0.0 0.7 ±0.1 1.0 ±0.0 0.5 ±0.1 2.5-5 1.3 ±0.1 0.3 ±0.0 0.6 ±0.1 0.5 ±0.0 0.2 ±0.0 0.7 ±0.1 0.8 ±0.0 0.5 ±0.1 5-10 2.4 ±0.1 1.2 ±0.1 1.3 ±0.3 1.0 ±00 0.5 ±0.0 1.3 ±0.1 1.4 ±0.0 0.9 ±0.1 10-20 4.1 ±0.6 2.1 ±0.0 2.1 ±0.1 1.8 ±0.2 0.8 ±0.1 2.1 ±0.4 2.8 ±0.1 2.0 ±0.3 20-30 3.1 ±0.3 2.1 ±0.0 1.9 ±0.1 1.8 ±0.2 0.8 ±0.2 1.7 ±0.2 1.8 ±0.1 1.3 ±0.1 Total (0-30) 12.7 ±1.2 6.3 ±0.1 6.4 ±0.5 5.6 ±0.4 2.6 ±0.4 6.5 ±0.9 7.8 ±0.3 5.1 ±0.6
  14. 14. LIF results:KenyaHumification degree or carbon stability (HLIF) of whole soils obtainedthrough Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy. 90 80 70 60 LIF inde x (a.u.) 50 (x1000) 40 30 0 - 2.5 20 2.5 - 5 10 20 - 30 0 5 - 10 5 - 10 depth (cm ) forest (1) 10 - 20 tea (1) 0 - 2.5 coffee + eucalyptus (1) coffee (1) natural vegetation (2) rotation (2) natural vegetation (3) 20 - 30 rotation (3) Land us e# HLIF can be estimated through the ratio area under fluorescence emission(excitation range 350 - 480 nm) / total organic carbon content.
  15. 15. Modeling Carbon Dynamics in Soils: Weather data used to run the model: Rainfall: essential Air temperature: essential Temporal resolution of weather data: Monthly: essential Spatial resolution of weather data: Local scale: essentialExtraction of soil and climate parameters from agro-ecological cells or polygonsfor model parameterization Source: FAO
  16. 16. Space-time scaling weather/climate data (ppm) HUANCANE 50 40 m.m. 30 20 10 0 1-Jan-99 20-Jul-99 5-Feb-00 23-Aug-00 11-Mar-01 27-Sep-01 15-Apr-02 1-Nov-02 Días
  17. 17. AfSIS✓60 primary sentinel sites 9,600 sampling plots 19,200 “standard” soil samples ~ 38,000 soil spectra 3,000 infiltration tests ~ 1,000 Landsat scenes ~ 16 TB of remote sensing data to
  18. 18. Sampling-transect to assess carbon contents and stocks in Southern Peru. Source: Segnini et al., 2010
  19. 19. Selected characteristics of the sampling sites. sites Ilo Moquegua Torata Puno San Juan del OroAgro eco Arid Coast Arid low Arid high Semi-Arid humid valley zones valley valley high plateau Altitude (m) 135 960 2,200 3,830 1,350 Cropping Maize, olive Maize, potato, Avocado, Potato, oat, Coffee, potato, system grape, orange, potato, maize, alfalfa, maize, coca, alfalfa, onion, alfalfa, cassava grasslands, citrus beans peat lands Precipitation 5 15 51 690-834 2133 (mm) T mean ( °C) 19°C 17°C 14°C 8 °C 20°C Soil class loam loam loam clay loam loam
  20. 20. Carbon stocks in diverse Andean soils
  21. 21. LIF results: AndesHumification degree or carbon stability (HLIF) of whole soils obtainedthrough Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy. 40 35 30 25 LIF index (a.u.) 20 0 - 2.5 15 2.5 - 5 10 5 - 10 5 10 - 20 0 10 - 20 20 - 30 Maize Olive Alfalfa I depth (cm) Potato I Grape 0 - 2.5 Avocado Alfalfa II Coffee Forest Potato II Land use# HLIF can be estimated through the ratio area under fluorescence emission(excitation range 350 - 480 nm) / total organic carbon content.
  22. 22. Changes in potential potato (improved and native) in Peru: 2000-2050
  23. 23. As temperature and presence of pest increase in the Andes Potatoes are planted in higher grounds1975:(4000-4150msnm)2005:(4150-4300msnm) S. De Haan & H. Juarez, CIP (2008)
  24. 24. Peatlands and otherland uses in theAndean highplateau
  25. 25. Potential loss of soil carbon stocks due to cropping peatlands and grasslands in Peru & Bolivia Peatlands to potato 350 300 Gigagrams (10x9) 250 200 150 100 50 0 2000 Scenarios 2050 Bolivia Peru Grasslands to potato 12000 10000 Gigagrams (10x9) 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 2000 Scenarios 2050 Bolivia Peru
  26. 26. Summary•Emerging SC measuring techniques / tools & MRV•Further field testing under different agroecological conditions &creation of spectral libraries needed (C-contents & stability)•Better input for SC modeling•Better assessment of tradeoffs•Synergy with complementary tools e.g. remote sensing

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