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Manon Koningstein
Jennifer Twyman, Shadi Azadegan, Simon Cook
PARTICIPATORY VIDEO FOR
INCLUSIVE RESEARCH
Two-way communica...
Let’s have a look at this video…
• https://www.powtoon.com/show/eGOhNzMRAlG/participatory-
video/#/
Case-studies
• How PV helped the community of Somotillo
(Nicaragua) to diffuse conservation practices.
• How PV helped you...
Shift from one-way to two-way
• Problem: case study Somotillo, one-way
information flow.
• Need for tools and approaches t...
PV as a communication tool in
Participatory Research
• Gain understanding of their situation, as well as
the confidence an...
Shannon and Weaver model of Communication (1949)
Sender
Message/
Channel
Receiver
Encoding Decoding
Noise
Feedback
Articulation points
• Hall uses term ‘articulation’ to give meaning
to a message.
• Encoding and decoding are “determinate...
Sender Channel
Coding Decoding
Noise
Feedback
Articulation
point
Articulation
point
Receiver
Reception Theory: Jauss (1980)
• Interpret texts and give meaning under
predetermined conditions.
• This happens through t...
Sender Channel
Coding Decoding
Noise
Articulation
point
Articulation
point
Predetermined conditions that influence
interpr...
Improvements in the communication
framework through the use of PV
Sender
• PV provides for awareness-building of the PV-ma...
Receiver
• No literacy required
• 83% of learning occurs visually (Lester, 1996)
Coding/Decoding
• Extended language
• Pow...
Conclusions
PV is an adequate tool for (agricultural) research
for development
• Allows understanding the local needs, wan...
References
• Traber, M & Lee, P. (1989) Video for Animation and conscientisation. Media Development 36(4): 1
• Kane, E., (...
Manon Koningstein
m.j.koningstein@cgiar.org
Research Associate/Communications Specialist
Gender & Climate Change
Internati...
Questions
Answers
&
Participatory video for two way communication in international development projects. Presentation held at IAMCR 2015, Mont...
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Participatory video for two way communication in international development projects. Presentation held at IAMCR 2015, Montreal, Canada

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Paper presented by Manon Koningstein (CIAT/CCAFS) at the Annual International Conference on Communication and Media Research (IAMCR) held in Montreal, 12-16 July, 2015.
The paper presents the idea of using Participatory Video (PV) for two way communication in International Development projects, making use of the theoretical model of Shannon & Weaver, the concept of articulation points by Hall, and the Reception Theory by Jauss/Braden. The presentation was sustained using examples from case studies in Nicaragua. This project has been funded by the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS), the International Centre from Tropcail Agriculture (CIAT) and the CGIAR Research Program on Integrated Systems for the Humid Tropics (Humidtropics).

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
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Participatory video for two way communication in international development projects. Presentation held at IAMCR 2015, Montreal, Canada

  1. 1. Manon Koningstein Jennifer Twyman, Shadi Azadegan, Simon Cook PARTICIPATORY VIDEO FOR INCLUSIVE RESEARCH Two-way communication in International Development
  2. 2. Let’s have a look at this video… • https://www.powtoon.com/show/eGOhNzMRAlG/participatory- video/#/
  3. 3. Case-studies • How PV helped the community of Somotillo (Nicaragua) to diffuse conservation practices. • How PV helped young rural women in Estelí (Nicaragua) to feel empowered.
  4. 4. Shift from one-way to two-way • Problem: case study Somotillo, one-way information flow. • Need for tools and approaches that bring the voices of (marginalized) groups into the policy-making arena • Shift from Development Information (one- way) to Development Communication (two ways) • Inclusive to gender, age, ethnicity, educational background
  5. 5. PV as a communication tool in Participatory Research • Gain understanding of their situation, as well as the confidence and ability to change it (Servaes, 2007). • Support process of empowerment (Kindon, 2003). • Reduce gap between researchers and reality (Kane, 1995).
  6. 6. Shannon and Weaver model of Communication (1949) Sender Message/ Channel Receiver Encoding Decoding Noise Feedback
  7. 7. Articulation points • Hall uses term ‘articulation’ to give meaning to a message. • Encoding and decoding are “determinate moments” (Hall 1980: 129). • Meaning is created through articulation.
  8. 8. Sender Channel Coding Decoding Noise Feedback Articulation point Articulation point Receiver
  9. 9. Reception Theory: Jauss (1980) • Interpret texts and give meaning under predetermined conditions. • This happens through the articulation points. • React differently when viewing collectively or alone (Morley 1992, Lull 1990) • Braden (1998) suggests, it’s the familiarity of image, location of viewing, and subject matter.
  10. 10. Sender Channel Coding Decoding Noise Articulation point Articulation point Predetermined conditions that influence interpretation Receiver Feedback
  11. 11. Improvements in the communication framework through the use of PV Sender • PV provides for awareness-building of the PV-makers • Inclusion of marginalized groups Message • People are more willing to listen to what others were saying when they watched it on video than they would have in face to face encounters (Ramella and Olmos, 2005). • Video helps to produce (representations of) linguistic expressions that are comprehensible and intelligible (Huber, 1999). • It can affirm the ingenuity and perspective of society’s most vulnerable groups • Linking intellectual and emotional reasons to reach community adaptation Channel • Accessible and available • International iGDP has increased drastically • Mass media having great potential to promote gender equality
  12. 12. Receiver • No literacy required • 83% of learning occurs visually (Lester, 1996) Coding/Decoding • Extended language • Power lies with the audience • Audiences are able to confront and contest representations of them Feedback • Provide for interaction where otherwise impossible
  13. 13. Conclusions PV is an adequate tool for (agricultural) research for development • Allows understanding the local needs, wants and knowledge of local and/or marginalized populations. • The higher possibility of positive reception leads to a higher possibility of acceptance of the message. However, there are cultural limitations, locally specific.
  14. 14. References • Traber, M & Lee, P. (1989) Video for Animation and conscientisation. Media Development 36(4): 1 • Kane, E., (1995). Seeing for yourself: Research handbook for girls' education in Africa. Washington, DC: World Bank. • Kindon, S. (2003) ‘Participatory Video in Geographic Research: A Feminist Practice of Looking?’ Area. Vol 35 (2) pp142-153. • Koningstein M., Azadegan S. (2014) Participatory Video in Somotillo, Nicaragua. CCAFS Working Paper no. 100. CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS). Copenhagen, Denmark. Available online at: www.ccafs.cgiar.org • T.J., Servaes, J. & White, S.A. (eds).Participatory Communication for Social Change. New Delhi & London: Sage Publications, Ch. 11. • Ramella, Marcelo and Olmos, Gonzao (2005) Participant Authored Audiovisual Stories (PAAS): Giving the Camera Away or Giving the Camera A Way?, London School of Economics and Political Science Papers in Social Research Methods, Qualitative Series 10, London: LSE • Huber, Bernard (1999) Communicative aspects of participatory video projects An exploratory study. Department of Rural Development Studies Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. Uppsala, 1999 - ISSN 1403-7998 • Lull, J., (1990). ‘Inside family viewing’. UK: Routledge • Morley, D.(1992). The 'Nationwide' Audience: a critical postscript. (In Morley, D. (ed). Television, Audiences and Cultural Studies. London & New York: Routledge, pp. 119-131. • Jauss, Hans Robert (1982) Literary History as a Challenge to Literary Theory, Toward an Aesthetic of Reception, trans. Timothy Bahti (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1982), 3-45 • Braden, S. (1998).Where's participation without representation. The Rural Extension Bulletin, June, 8-11. • Photocredits: Manon Koningstein (CIAT), Gian Betancourt (CIAT), Shadi Azadegan (CIAT)
  15. 15. Manon Koningstein m.j.koningstein@cgiar.org Research Associate/Communications Specialist Gender & Climate Change International Centre for Tropical Agriculture CIAT Colombia
  16. 16. Questions Answers &

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