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Cost-effective guidelines for measurement of
agricultural greenhouse gas emissions and removals
Meryl Richards, Ngonidzash...
Studies of N2O
emissions from
managed soils
in SSA
Hickman et al. 2014
Virtually no data on
GHG sources and
sinks in tropi...
The problem: Lack of data, high uncertainty
Richards et al. 2015
Estimated and
measured changes
in GHG emissions
between c...
Hotspots of emissions
and mitigation potential
Herold et al., Wednesday 16:30
Parallel session 2218: Land-
based mitigati...
Innovations in methods: Targeting
measurement within landscapes
Rufino et al. 2015
Arias-Navarro et al. 2013
Innovations in methods: Gas pooling
Innovations in methods: Using diameter
only for tree biomass measurements
To save resources on tree
measurements:
• Allome...
Findings: Fallow and straw management
in paddy rice
• Methane (CH4) emissions strongly influenced by fallow
and straw mana...
Findings: Soil N2O from fertilizer
applicationTesting the non-linearity of N2O emissions
from wheat with N rate above the ...
Findings: Emission factors for livestock
Source Kg CH4-C / Head. Year EF N2O-N %
IPCC, 2006 0.77 2
Yamluki, 1999 &
Yamluki...
Conclusions
• Some systems, sources and practices relatively
well-understood (e.g. CH4 changes with water
management in pa...
Thank you
ccafs.cgiar.org
meryl.richards@uvm.edu
References
• Arias-Navarro C, Díaz-Pinés E, Kieseb R, Rosenstock TS, Rufino MC, Stern D, Neufeldt H, Verchot
LV, Butterbac...
Findings: Tillage and crop establishment
in rice-wheat systems
Tillage Crop
establishment
kg CH4-C ha-1 yr-1 kg N2O-N ha-1...
Cumulative CH4 emissions
0
2
4
6
8
10
CF AWD
tCO2-eq/ha*season
Bulacan 1
5.3
1.8
-66%
0
2
4
6
8
10
CF AWD
tCO2-eq/ha*seaso...
Rochette and Eriksen-Hamil 2008
60% of 360 studies of N2O emissions were inadequate to have
confidence in results
The prob...
Arias-Navarro et al. 2013 SBB
Research
constraints
Development of new context specific methods
Analytical capacity in the ...
Why measure and monitor emissions from
agriculture?
van Vuuren et al. 2011
Why measure and monitor emissions from
agriculture in developing countries?
Smith et al. 2014
GtCO2e/year
Standard Assessment of Agricultural Mitigation Potential and Livelihoods our common future 2015
Standard Assessment of Agricultural Mitigation Potential and Livelihoods our common future 2015
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Standard Assessment of Agricultural Mitigation Potential and Livelihoods our common future 2015

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Presentation by Meryl Richards, Science Officer in the Low Emissions Agriculture flagship program at CCAFS, on a new framework for better GHG emissions monitoring.

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Standard Assessment of Agricultural Mitigation Potential and Livelihoods our common future 2015

  1. 1. Cost-effective guidelines for measurement of agricultural greenhouse gas emissions and removals Meryl Richards, Ngonidzashe Chirinda, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, John Goopy, Ivan Ortiz- Monasterio, Todd Rosenstock, Mariana Rufino, B Ole Sander, Tek Sapkota, Lini Wollenberg
  2. 2. Studies of N2O emissions from managed soils in SSA Hickman et al. 2014 Virtually no data on GHG sources and sinks in tropical developing countries The problem: Lack of data, high uncertainty Field measurements of N2O Laboratory measurements of N2O
  3. 3. The problem: Lack of data, high uncertainty Richards et al. 2015 Estimated and measured changes in GHG emissions between control and alternative management practices do not agree
  4. 4. Hotspots of emissions and mitigation potential Herold et al., Wednesday 16:30 Parallel session 2218: Land- based mitigation UNESCO Fontenoy - Room IX samples.ccafs.cgiar.org Robust, standard methods that reduce cost of producing data Emission factors, models calibrated for priority systems
  5. 5. Innovations in methods: Targeting measurement within landscapes Rufino et al. 2015
  6. 6. Arias-Navarro et al. 2013 Innovations in methods: Gas pooling
  7. 7. Innovations in methods: Using diameter only for tree biomass measurements To save resources on tree measurements: • Allometric equations for trees on farms can be based solely on diameter at breast height • Sampling strategy should capture the range of tree sizes found in the landscape • Future indirect quantification should focus on diameter at breast height Kuyah & Rosenstock 2015
  8. 8. Findings: Fallow and straw management in paddy rice • Methane (CH4) emissions strongly influenced by fallow and straw management • Soil drying between rice crops in the tropics can reduce CH4 emissions during the subsequent rice crop Sander et al. 2014 0 500 1000 1500 2000 Flooded Dry Dry + tillage Dry and wet gCO2e/m-2 With residue Without residue a c y c b y x y
  9. 9. Findings: Soil N2O from fertilizer applicationTesting the non-linearity of N2O emissions from wheat with N rate above the optimum for yield Will provide N2O emission factors for Mexico (Ortiz-Monasterio et al., forthcoming)
  10. 10. Findings: Emission factors for livestock Source Kg CH4-C / Head. Year EF N2O-N % IPCC, 2006 0.77 2 Yamluki, 1999 & Yamluki, 1998 0.26 0.53 SAMPLES trial 0.14 (Friesian) 0.026 (Boran) 0.23 (Friesian) 0.53 (Boran) Comparison of cumulative emissions and emission factors for manure management Butterbach-Bahl, Pelster, Goopy preliminary data
  11. 11. Conclusions • Some systems, sources and practices relatively well-understood (e.g. CH4 changes with water management in paddy rice) • Others less so:  Priorities for data: N2O emissions from tropical soils, CH4 from livestock systems  Priorities for methods: Enteric methane, soil C monitoring methods, activity data, calibration of models  Standard methods, coordinated data platforms needed
  12. 12. Thank you ccafs.cgiar.org meryl.richards@uvm.edu
  13. 13. References • Arias-Navarro C, Díaz-Pinés E, Kieseb R, Rosenstock TS, Rufino MC, Stern D, Neufeldt H, Verchot LV, Butterbach-Bahl K. (2013) Gas pooling: a sampling technique to overcome spatial heterogeneity of soil carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide fluxes. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 67: 20-23. • Hickman JE, Scholes RJ, Rosenstock TS, et al (2014) Assessing non-CO2 climate-forcing emissions and mitigation in sub-Saharan Africa. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 9-10:65–72. doi: 10.1016/j.cosust.2014.07.010 • Kuyah S, Rosenstock TS (2015) Optimal measurement strategies for aboveground tree biomass in agricultural landscapes. Agrofor Syst 89:125–133. doi: 10.1007/s10457-014-9747-9 • Richards M, Metzel R, Chirinda N, Ly P, Nyamadzawo G, Duong Vu Q, de Neergaard A, Oelefse M, Wollenberg E, Keller E, Malin D, Olesen JE, Hillier J, Rosenstock TS (2015) Limits of greenhouse gas calculators to predict soil fluxes in tropical agriculture. Submitted to Sci. Rep. • Sander BO, Samson M, Buresh RJ (2014) Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from flooded rice fields as affected by water and straw management between rice crops. Geoderma 235-236:355–362. doi: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2014.07.020 • Smith P, Bustamante M, Ahammad H, et al (2014) Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU). In: Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Edenhofer O, Pichs-Madruga R, Sokona Y, et al. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. • Van Vuuren DP, Stehfest E, den Elzen MGJ, et al (2011) RCP2.6: Exploring the possibility to keep global mean temperature increase below 2°C. Clim Change 109:95–116. doi: 10.1007/s10584-011- 0152-3
  14. 14. Findings: Tillage and crop establishment in rice-wheat systems Tillage Crop establishment kg CH4-C ha-1 yr-1 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 Conventional tillage Puddling, transplanting 20.83 1.83 Zero till, residue removed Direct seeding 0.54 2.05 Zero till residue left on field Direct seeding 3.98 2.65
  15. 15. Cumulative CH4 emissions 0 2 4 6 8 10 CF AWD tCO2-eq/ha*season Bulacan 1 5.3 1.8 -66% 0 2 4 6 8 10 CF AWD tCO2-eq/ha*season Bulacan 2 7.8 1.8 -77% 0 2 4 6 8 10 CF AWD tCO2-eq/ha*season Tarlac -70% 3.7 1.1 0 2 4 6 8 10 CF AWD tCO2-eq/ha*season N E -65%8.6 3.0 Findings: Alternate wetting and drying in paddy rice Sander et al. unpublished
  16. 16. Rochette and Eriksen-Hamil 2008 60% of 360 studies of N2O emissions were inadequate to have confidence in results The problem: Validity of data
  17. 17. Arias-Navarro et al. 2013 SBB Research constraints Development of new context specific methods Analytical capacity in the lab Small-scale spatial heterogeneity
  18. 18. Why measure and monitor emissions from agriculture? van Vuuren et al. 2011
  19. 19. Why measure and monitor emissions from agriculture in developing countries? Smith et al. 2014 GtCO2e/year

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