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WBCSD CSA Workshop - Measuring GHG Mitigation in Agricultural Value Chains


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The presentation Measuring GHG Mitigation in Agricultural Value Chains is by Meryl Richards, science officer at CCAFS Low Emissions Development.
Presented at the WBCSD Climate Smart Agriculture workshop at the University of Vermont, Burlington, VT on 27 March 2018.

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WBCSD CSA Workshop - Measuring GHG Mitigation in Agricultural Value Chains

  1. 1. Impactful and Measurable Progress on CSA in Corporate Value Chains Workshop 27-28 March 2018Smarter Metrics Workshop | Burlington 1 MEASURING GHG MITIGATION IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS Meryl Richards- Science Officer, CCAFS Low Emissions Development Flagship Day 2 | 28 March 2018 08:45
  2. 2. 2 AGRICULTURE CONTRIBUTES ~12% OF TOTAL GLOBAL GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS Graphic: CDP 2015; data from Smith et al. 2014
  3. 3. 3 FOOD SYSTEMS CONTRIBUTE 19-29% Vermeulen et al. 2012
  4. 4. WBCSD STATEMENT OF AMBITION TO 2030 4 • Reduce GHG emissions by at least 30% of annual agricultural CO2e emissions against 2010 levels (aligned with a global 1.6 GtCO2e yr-1 reduction by 2030) • Includes direct agricultural emissions (and carbon sequestration on agricultural land) and emissions in the non-agricultural segments of food supply chains • A substantial portion of these reductions will also be achieved through reducing loss and waste
  5. 5. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1970 1990 2010 2030 2050 2070 2090 2110 Emissionsfromagriculture(GtCO2e/yr) Agriculture will need to limit its emissions to about 6-8 Gigatonnes CO2 equivalents per year by 2030 This requires mitigation of 1 Gigatonne per year based on our current trajectory. Baseline 2°C scenario Wollenberg et al. 2016 GLOBAL AGRICULTURAL GHG MITIGATION GOAL (CH4, N2O)
  6. 6. MCDONALDS 6 Reduce GHG emissions related to McDonald’s restaurants and offices 36% by 2030 from a 2015 base year. Additionally, 31% reduction in emissions intensity (per metric ton of food and packaging) across its supply chain by 2030 from 2015 levels. PEPSICO SCIENCE-BASED TARGETS
  7. 7. EMISSION SOURCES RELEVANT TO CSA 7 Current status: • All WBCSD member companies report Scope 1&2 emissions • Scope 3 reporting could benefit from greater completeness and transparency (Vermeulen & Frid-Nelson 2017) GHG Protocol
  8. 8. HOW DO COMPANIES CURRENTLY MONITOR MITIGATION IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS? 8 • Participation in Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP) • Ask top suppliers to participate in CDP • Capture data on farm-level inputs and growing practices in order to calculate associated emissions improvements • Identify best practices for farmers to adopt and monitor progress over time • Self-assessment by farmers 3 5 4 3. Does your company measure Scope 3 emissions in your agricultural supply chains? Yes No No, but we are in the process of developing this
  9. 9. HOW DO COMPANIES CURRENTLY MONITOR MITIGATION IN AGRICULTURAL SUPPLY CHAINS? 9 • Flexible data capture approach using existing monitoring systems or new tools (Cool Farm Tool, Field to Market Initiative Fieldprint calculator) • Participate in Sustainable Agriculture Initiative (SAI) Platform, Cool Farm Alliance, and Field to Market Initiative • Track our percentage of verified sustainably sourced raw materials • Source certified products (Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil, Bonsucro)
  10. 10. METRICS FOR MONITORING MITIGATION IN AGRICULTURAL SUPPLY CHAINS 10 1. Activity indicators: • Participation in agricultural sustainability initiatives 2. Outcome indicators • Sustainability certification of raw materials • Adoption of practices by farmers 3. Impact indicators • Greenhouse gas accounting/inventories
  11. 11. METRICS FOR MONITORING MITIGATION 11 • Total emissions (CO2e) • Avoided losses or sequestration of C (or CO2) • Total emissions and carbon sequestration (CO2e) per unit of production (emissions intensity) • Emissions per unit of value added (SDG indicator 9.4.1) (Vermeulen & Frid-Nelson 2017) Compared to a historical baseline (2010)
  12. 12. IPCC GUIDELINES FOR GHG INVENTORIES 12 IPCC 2006 Guidelines Energy Industrial processes Agriculture, forestry, and other land use Waste Emissions = activity data x emission factor
  14. 14. METHODOLOGIES FOR VOLUNTARY AND REGULATORY MARKETS 14 • Gold Standard • Smallholder Dairy Methodology • New Scope 3 guidelines • New soil carbon methodology • Verified Carbon Standard • Sustainable land management • Soil carbon • Nitrogen fertilizer rate reduction • Grassland management • REDD+ • Clean Development Mechanism • Water management in rice • Manure management • Improved digestibility of livestock feed • Silvopastoral systems • Plan Vivo Foundation • SHAMBA
  15. 15. GREENHOUSE GAS CALCULATORS FOR AGRICULTURE AND LAND USE 15 • Cool Farm Tool • Ex-ante carbon balance tool • FieldPrint calculator (USA operations) • CCAFS Mitigation Options Tool • SHAMBA • Life cycle analysis tools and databases • E.g. World Food LCA Database (Colomb et al. 2012, 2013)
  16. 16. Quick tab views Live results 6 TabsDrop-down data entry Progress tracker
  17. 17. THE DATA CHALLENGE 17 • Primary data • Reflects conditions within value chain • Farm management information • Secondary data • Amount of raw material sourced • LCA factors • International statistics PRIMARY DATA BETTER REFLECTS MITIGATION AND HELPS MEASURE PROGRESS, BUT IT IS MORE DIFFICULT TO OBTAIN
  18. 18. INNOVATIVE DATA COLLECTION METHODOLOGIES 18 In-field wireless water sensors for rice cultivation Kawamaki et al. 2016
  19. 19. INNOVATIVE DATA COLLECTION METHODOLOGIES 19 Remote or proximal sensing of soil carbon stocks using spectroscopy Rossel et al. 2016
  20. 20. INNOVATIVE DATA COLLECTION METHODOLOGIES 20 Precision agriculture, digital farming
  21. 21. KEY MESSAGES 21 • Tracking progress on the CSA outcome on mitigation requires measuring emissions against a baseline • Suggested metrics: absolute emissions and emission intensity (incorporates productivity) • Capturing mitigation actions requires primary data from suppliers • Aim for “good enough” data and improve over time • Benefit of collaboration: sharing “best practice” and innovative solutions for data collection
  22. 22. REFERENCES 22 • Greenhouse Gas Protocol. 2011. Corporate Value Chain (Scope 3) Accounting and Reporting Standard. World Resources Institute and World Business Council on Sustainable Development. • Greenhouse Gas Protocol. 2014. GHG Protocol Agricultural Guidance. World Resources Institute and World Business Council on Sustainable Development. • Kawakami Y, Furuta T, Nakagawa H, Kitamura T, Kurosawa K, Kogami K, Tajino N, Tanaka M.S. 2016. Rice Cultivation Support System Equipped with Water-level Sensor System. IFAC-PapersOnLine 49, 143–148. • Viscarra Rossel RA, Behrens, T, Ben-Dor E, Brown DJ, Demattê JAM, Shepherd KD, Shi Z, Stenberg B, Stevens A, Adamchuk V, Aïchi H, Barthès BG, Bartholomeus HM, Bayer AD, Bernoux M, Böttcher K, Brodský L, Du CW, Chappell A, Fouad Y, Genot V, Gomez C, Grunwald S, Gubler A, Guerrero C, Hedley CB, Knadel M, Morrás HJM, Nocita M, Ramirez-Lopez L, Roudier P, Campos EMR, Sanborn P, Sellitto VM, Sudduth KA, Rawlins BG, Walter C, Winowiecki LA, Hong SY, Ji W. 2016. A global spectral library to characterize the world’s soil. Earth-Science Rev. 155, 198–230. • Smith P, Bustamante M, Ahammad H, Clark H, Dong H, Elsdiffig EA, Haberl H, Harper R, House J, Jafari M, Masera O, Mbow C, Rabindranath NH, Rice CW, Rolbedo Abad C, Romanovskaya A, Sperling F, Tubiello F. 2014. Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU). In: Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Edenhofer, O., R.Pichs-Madruga, Y. Sokona, E. Farahani, S. Kadner, K. Seyboth, A. Adler, I. Baum, S. Brunner, P. Eickemeier, B. Kriemann, J. Savolainen, S. Schlömer, C. von Stechow, T. Zwickel and J.C. Minx (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. • Vermeulen SJ, Campbell BM, Ingram JSII. 2012. Climate Change and Food Systems. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. 37, 195–222. 130608 • Vermeulen SJ, Frid-Nielsen SS. 2017. Measuring Progress Towards the WBCSD Statement of Ambition on Climate-Smart Agriculture: Improving Businesses’ Ability to Trace, Measure and Monitor CSA. CCAFS Working Paper no. 199. Copenhagen, Denmark: CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS). • Wollenberg E, Richards M, Smith P, Havlík P, obersteiner M, Tubiello FN, Herold M, Gerber P, Carter S, Reisinger A, van Vuuren DP, Dickie A, Neufeldt H, Sander BO, Wassman R, Sommer R, Amonette JE, Falcucci A, Herrero M, Opio C, Roman-Cuesta RM, Stehfest E, Westhoek H, Ortiz-Monasterio I, Sapkota T, Rufino MC, Thornton PK, Verchot L, West PC, Soussana J-F, Baedeker T, Sadler M, Vermeulen S, Campbell BM. 2016. Reducing emissions from agriculture to meet the 2 °C target. Glob. Chang. Biol. 22.
  23. 23. REFERENCES: VOLUNTARY AND COMPLIANCE MARKET STANDARDS 23 • Gold standard • Increasing soil carbon through improved tillage: standard-tillage-methodology-approved • Smallholder dairy: methodology • Verified Carbon Standard • VM0009 Methodology for Avoided Ecosystem Conversion • VM0017 Adoption of Sustainable Agricultural Land Management • VM0021 Soil Carbon Quantification Methodology • VM0022 Quantifying N2O Emissions Reductions in Agricultural Crops through Nitrogen Fertilizer Rate Reduction • VM0026 Methodology for Sustainable Grassland Management • VM0032 Methodology for the Adoption of Sustainable Grasslands through Adjustment of Fire and Grazing • VMD0003 Estimation of carbon stocks in the litter pool • VM0007 REDD+ Methodology Framework (REDD-MF) • Methodologies for avoided ecosystem conversion, avoided conversion of peat swamp, improved forest management • Clean Development Mechanism Large-scale methodologies • ACM0010 GHG emission reductions from manure management systems Small-scale methodologies • AMS-III.A. Offsetting of synthetic nitrogen fertilizers by inoculant application in legumes-grass rotations on acidic soils on existing cropland • AMS-II.F. Energy efficiency and fuel switching measures for agricultural facilities and activities • AMS-II.P. Energy efficient pump-set for agriculture use • AMS-III.D. Methane recovery in animal manure management • AMS-III.R. Methane recovery in agricultural activities at household/small farm level systems • AMS-III.AU. Methane emission reduction by adjusted water management practice in rice cultivation • AMS-III.BE. Avoidance of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from sugarcane pre-harvest open burning through mulching • AMS-III.BK Strategic feed supplementation in smallholder dairy sector to increase productivity • Afforestation and reforestation methodologies
  24. 24. REFERENCES: GREENHOUSE GAS CALCULATORS FOR AGRICULTURE AND LAND USE 24 • Cool Farm Tool • Ex-ante carbon balance tool home/en/ • FieldPrint calculator program/fieldprint-platform/ • SHAMBA • CCAFS Mitigation Options Tool • Life cycle analysis tools and databases • World Food LCA Database https://quantis- • World Apparel and Footwear LCA Database apparel-footwear/ Guides to more agricultural GHG calculation tools • Colomb, V., Touchemoulin, O., Bockel, L., Chotte, J.-L., Martin, S., Tinlot, M., Bernoux, M., 2013. Selection of appropriate calculators for landscape-scale greenhouse gas assessment for agriculture and forestry. Environ. Res. Lett. 8, 15029. • Colomb, V., Bernoux, M., Bockel, L., Chotte, J.-L., Martin, S., Martin-Phipps, C., Mousset, J., Tinlot, M., Touchemoulin, O., 2012. Review of GHG calculators in agriculture and forestry sectors. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome. agriculture/en/