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Hermetic bag for the storage of maize: Economic perspective in different Sub-Saharan African countries, food security and greenhouse gas emissions

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The potential of hermetic bags for storage of maize in sub-Saharan African countries. Summary of study findings.
Read the study: https://cgspace.cgiar.org/bitstream/handle/10568/106250/WP291.pdf

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Hermetic bag for the storage of maize: Economic perspective in different Sub-Saharan African countries, food security and greenhouse gas emissions

  1. 1. CCAFS Case: Hermetic Bags The potential of hermetic Bags for storage of Maize in sub- Saharan African countries 2019, Bert Dijkink, Jan Broeze Wageningen Food & Biobased Research This work is implemented as part of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS), which is carried out with support from CGIAR Fund Donors and through bilateral funding agreements.
  2. 2. Hermetic Bags for Maize storage : Introduction CCAFS 2  The use of Hermetic Bags in sub-Sahara-Africa is studied as one of the 4 cases in this CAFFS project.  The goal of the CCAFS project is to the evaluated different interventions in the food chain on the effect on Green House Gas (GHG) emissions and food security.  Other cases: ● Cassava processing: Mobile factory in Mozambique to improve processing yields compared to traditional processing and avoid spoilage by long transport times to central factories. ● Milk chain: Evaluating different cold chain opportunities in Ethiopia. ● Tomatoes: Reduction of post harvest losses by changes in transport.
  3. 3. Hermetic Bags for Maize storage: Introduction 3  Insects infestation causes a larges part of the Post-harvest losses (PHL) of staple crops in the Sub Sahara region. Especially for smallholder farmers.  Hermetic storage in the form as steel silo’s, plastic drums of plastic bags is an promising improvement to reduce PHL by insects.  In this case the field data of several studies are combined to get a realistic figure on the reduction of PHL using hermetic bags for Maize. Furthermore the (economical) drivers to use this kind a bags by the farmer are taken into account Maize Weevil on Maize (Goergen IITA 2017)
  4. 4. Hermetic Bags for Maize storage: Introduction 4  The effectiveness of the reduction of storage loss of a hermetic storage system is reducing the O2 and increasing the CO2 Levels  Thereby controlling the activity and the number of life insects in the product. Njoroge et al 2017
  5. 5. Hermetic Bags for Maize storage: Introduction 5  In this case the effect of the introduction of Hermetic BAGS for the storage of Maize is studied. ● Literature from field trails are combined to get a realistic view on the expected reduction and spread in weight loss during storage. ● Calculation of the effect on the GHG emissions of the different storage methods. ● Calculation of the expected penalty due to of quality loss during storage. ● The farmer economic prospects in different countries using the different of storage methods.
  6. 6. Hermetic Bags for Maize storage: field trails 6  Effect of Hermetic bags and the use of pesticides on losses in small farm storage of Maize. Likhayo, Bruce et al. (2016), Ndegwa, De Groote et al. (2016), Mlambo, Mvumi et al. (2017), Ng’ang’a, Mutungi et al. (2016), Baoua, Amadou et al. (2014) Conclusion: Large scattering of the measured values. Hermetic bags are very effective
  7. 7. Hermetic Bags for Maize storage: net GHG effects 7  Effect of Hermetic bags and the use of pesticides on GHG emission per kg Maize during storage of batches of 90kg Average values, bars 95% confidential limits Conclusion: the GHG emissions associated to producing the packaging is small compared to reduction of the GHG emission through loss reductions.
  8. 8. Hermetic Bags for Maize storage: quality 8  Quality change during on farm storage of maize which effect the market prices Percentages are calculated from averages measurements with standard deviations from literature on damaged grains during storage.
  9. 9. Hermetic Bags for Maize: Market Prices 9  Seasonally price fluctuation ● Storage enables selling when the price is high ● Market price fluctuation differs per country: Uganda harvest twice a year, Malawi has a high seasonal gap and Zambia a low seasonal gap; hence in a market like Malawi the bags are most profitable.
  10. 10. Hermetic Bags for Maize: Cost Prices 10  Parameters for the cost price calculations ● PICS bag is chosen as most economical and good available Hermetic bag
  11. 11. ● Bold cost price lower as market price, green cheapest option for that period ● The Best storage option depends on the on the seasonal GAP Hermetic Bags for Maize: cost price 11  Cost price of Maize during storage in different countries compared with the market price. standard bags pesticides hermetic bag standard bags pesticides hermetic bag standard bags pesticides hermetic bag 0 $0,27 $0,27 $0,28 $0,28 $0,26 $0,26 $0,26 $0,27 $0,30 $0,30 $0,31 $0,31 65 $0,29 $0,28 $0,29 $0,28 $0,28 $0,26 $0,27 $0,27 $0,28 $0,31 $0,32 $0,31 127 $0,33 $0,29 $0,30 $0,28 $0,29 $0,28 $0,28 $0,27 $0,29 $0,32 $0,33 $0,31 187 $0,30 $0,32 $0,30 $0,28 $0,29 $0,30 $0,29 $0,27 $0,29 $0,35 $0,34 $0,31 247 $0,27 $0,35 $0,31 $0,28 $0,34 $0,34 $0,30 $0,27 $0,33 $0,39 $0,35 $0,31 Uganda Malawi Zambia market price per kg costprice stored grain per kg market price per kg costprice stored grain per kg market price per kg costprice stored grain per kgstorage (days)
  12. 12. Hermetic Bags for Maize: Prices 12 Expected profit of stored Maize on the market Lifetime Hermetic bag: 3 seasons Lifetime Hermetic bag: 1 season standard bags pesticides hermetic bag standard bags pesticides hermetic bag standard bags pesticides hermetic bag 0 -1% -4% -5% -1% -4% -5% -1% -3% -4% 65 -1% 3% 7% -1% 4% 8% -15% -11% -8% 127 -1% 9% 22% -11% -2% 8% -23% -15% -6% 187 -15% -7% 7% -13% -4% 10% -27% -20% -8% 247 -35% -22% -7% -14% 4% 23% -29% -14% 2% storage (days) Uganda Malawi Zambia Conclusions:  Due to higher grain quality, hermetic bags can increase farmers income  The profit is very dependent on the life time of the hermetic bag standard bags pesticides hermetic bag standard bags pesticides hermetic bag standard bags pesticides hermetic bag 0 -1% -4% -14% -1% -4% -15% -1% -3% -13% 65 -1% 3% -2% -1% 4% -2% -15% -11% -16% 127 -1% 9% 12% -11% -2% -2% -23% -15% -15% 187 -15% -7% -3% -13% -4% 0% -27% -20% -17% 247 -35% -22% -17% -14% 4% 13% -29% -14% -7% storage (days) Uganda Malawi Zambia
  13. 13. Hermetic Bags for Maize storage: Conclusions 13  Hermetic bags are very efficient for the reduction of PHL of Maize by insects at longer storage times.  The GHG emission of the production of Hermetic bags is very small compare to the GHG reduction by preventing PHL.  Also the quality of the maize is preserved much better as for the standard bag of the use of Pesticides.  The drivers for a farmer to use hermetic bags can depends also on many other factors: ● Seasonal price fluctuation ● Storage time ● Price penalties due to quality loss ● Need for cash ● Experience with his own harvest ● The price of the Hermetic bag ● Life time of the Hermetic bag

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