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Mitigation potential in rice production 
Reiner Wassmann 
Bjoern Ole Sander 
International Rice Research Institute
Outline 
• Background: Rice as a source of GHGs 
• Possible Options for Mitigation in Rice 
• Feasibility assessment for 
...
Significance of Rice Fields for GHG budgets 
Forestry, 
17.4% 
Rice, 1.5% 
Agriculture 
(w/o rice), 
12.0% 
(IPCC 4th AR, ...
Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Rice 
Nitrous Oxide 
Emissions from 
Fertilizer 
Application 
Methane emissions: 100 – 500 k...
IRRI Climate Change projects since 1991
Capacity building
Outline 
• Background: Rice as a source of GHGs 
• Possible Options for Mitigation in Rice 
• Feasibility assessment for 
...
Impact of Mid-season Drainage 
on Methane Emissions 
water level (cm) / line Eh (mV) / dots 
100 
0 
Continuous Flooding -...
Alternate-Wetting-and-Drying (AWD) 
• Irrigation water saving technique: drainage 
and re-flooding
AWD Experiment in Central Vietnam 
Rice, 
Maize, 
Peanut... 
Rice, 
Maize… 
Ha Noi 
HCM City 
Minh et al. (in prep.)
Results from Field Measurements 
Measured Data 
supplied 
by Hoa et al. 
Delta Lowland 
8.0 
7.0 
6.0 
5.0 
4.0 
3.0 
2.0 ...
New Policy on Mitigation in Agricultural Sector in VN 
From national level… 
to implementation at provincial level. 
Farme...
Mitigation through Optimized 
Fertilizer Applications 
Farmers need to know 
• Correct timing… 
• Correct amounts… 
• Corr...
Operation of Mobile Phone App 
Provide 
management 
recommen-dation 
Cloud based server 
Rice Crop Manager 
• Nutrients 
•...
Outline 
• Background: Rice as a source of GHGs 
• Possible Options for Mitigation in Rice 
• Suitability assessment for 
...
AWD projects in the Philippines (Central Luzon) 
Angat Irrigation 
(AMRIS): B1; B2
Climatic AWD Suitability: Water Balance 
Rainfall (Rf) Potential Evapo-transpiration 
(pot_ET) 
Potential Seepage& 
Percol...
Climatic AWD Suitability of Central Luzon
Infra-structural AWD Suitability: 
Irrigation Specifics 
Methane emission reductions through AWD (vs. Continuous Flooding)...
Infra-structual AWD Suitability: 
Methane emission reductions through AWD (vs. Continuous Flooding) 
10 
8 
6 
4 
2 
0 
CF...
Introducing AWD
Lessons learned in case studies 
• Stress the co-benefits of AWD (such as stronger 
lodging resistance) to motivate farmer...
Assist in Carbon Crediting? 
Small Scale Methodology Approved by UNFCCC (May 2011): 
“Methane emission 
reduction by adjus...
CDM Pipeline 
Project 
Developer 
Project 
Proposal 
Project 
Developer 
Designated 
Nat. Auth. 
Project 
Design 
Docum. 
...
Methodology AMS-III.AU. 
Version 3.0 (since 03 Aug. 2012) 
Example: 
• AWD in dry season 
• Multiple aeration (1.8 kg ha/d...
Good Agricultural Practice 
(GAP) Guidelines 
Vietnam 
Mot Phai/ 
Nam Giam 
(1 Must Do/ 
5 Reductions) 
Philippines 
Palay...
Outline 
• Background: Rice as a source of GHGs 
• Possible Options for Mitigation in Rice 
• Feasibility assessment for 
...
New Project: 
“Mitigation Options to 
Reduce Methane 
Emissions in Paddy Rice” 
CCAC: 
• Partnership of governments, inter...
CCAC initiatives 
3 components 
• Open Agricultural Burning 
• Livestock/ Manure Management 
• Paddy Rice Production
New Project: 
“Mitigation Options to 
Reduce Methane 
Emissions in Paddy Rice” 
Overall Objective: 
Road maps for implemen...
New Project: 
“Mitigation Options to 
Reduce Methane 
Emissions in Paddy Rice” 
Specific Objectives: 
1) Improved informat...
Conclusions 
Policy makers are getting increasingly 
interested to integrate mitigation into 
development targets 
… BUT …...
Conclusions 
Scientific findings and publications will 
NOT be sufficient as such to stimulate 
mitigation 
… BUT … 
shoul...
Thank you
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GHG mitigation potential in rice production

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Keynote presentation by Dr Reiner Wassmann, International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) at CCAFS webinar 'Exploring GHG mitigation potential in rice production' on 18 September 2014.

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GHG mitigation potential in rice production

  1. 1. Mitigation potential in rice production Reiner Wassmann Bjoern Ole Sander International Rice Research Institute
  2. 2. Outline • Background: Rice as a source of GHGs • Possible Options for Mitigation in Rice • Feasibility assessment for Alternate-Wetting-and-Drying • Outlook and Conclusion
  3. 3. Significance of Rice Fields for GHG budgets Forestry, 17.4% Rice, 1.5% Agriculture (w/o rice), 12.0% (IPCC 4th AR, 2007) All others , 69.1% Country National Scale in Asia: Emissions from rice production Percentage of total Vietnam 24.8 % Bangladesh 7.2 % Colombia 0.8 % Data from the most 2nd National Communication of respective country
  4. 4. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Rice Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Fertilizer Application Methane emissions: 100 – 500 kg CH4/ ha season => 2 – 12 tCO2eq/ ha season
  5. 5. IRRI Climate Change projects since 1991
  6. 6. Capacity building
  7. 7. Outline • Background: Rice as a source of GHGs • Possible Options for Mitigation in Rice • Feasibility assessment for Alternate-Wetting-and-Drying • Outlook and Conclusion
  8. 8. Impact of Mid-season Drainage on Methane Emissions water level (cm) / line Eh (mV) / dots 100 0 Continuous Flooding -100 Mid-season Drainage -200 water level (cm) / line Eh (mV) / dots 30 20 10 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 Days after planting 30 20 10 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 -300 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 methane emission (mg CH4 m-2 d-1) 20 40 60 80 100 120 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 100 0 -100 -200 -300 0 methane emission (mg CH4 m-2 d-1) 20 40 60 80 100 120 Field experiment at Hangzhou, China (Wassmann et al., 2000)
  9. 9. Alternate-Wetting-and-Drying (AWD) • Irrigation water saving technique: drainage and re-flooding
  10. 10. AWD Experiment in Central Vietnam Rice, Maize, Peanut... Rice, Maize… Ha Noi HCM City Minh et al. (in prep.)
  11. 11. Results from Field Measurements Measured Data supplied by Hoa et al. Delta Lowland 8.0 7.0 6.0 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 DAT kg CH4/ha/day CF Measured CF Simulated AWD Measured AWD Simulated Hilly Midland 0.0 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 DAT kg CH4/ha/day CF Measured CF Simulated AWD Measured AWD Simulated
  12. 12. New Policy on Mitigation in Agricultural Sector in VN From national level… to implementation at provincial level. Farmers should use/apply AWD irrigation technology to not only greatly save water consumption and reduce GHGs emissions in irrigated rice fields, but also increase rice productivity. 20-20-20 Decision AWD is directly mentioned as one mitigation option by Ministry of Agriculture
  13. 13. Mitigation through Optimized Fertilizer Applications Farmers need to know • Correct timing… • Correct amounts… • Correct sources… … of fertilizer applications Rice fields are typically small and can substantially differ from each other
  14. 14. Operation of Mobile Phone App Provide management recommen-dation Cloud based server Rice Crop Manager • Nutrients • Weeds • Irrigation • …. Obtain site-specific information from farmer/ operator New Modules • GHG emission calculator • Climate-adjusted yield targets Climate-Informed Rice Crop and Low Emission Manager => CIRCLE Manager
  15. 15. Outline • Background: Rice as a source of GHGs • Possible Options for Mitigation in Rice • Suitability assessment for Alternate-Wetting-and-Drying • Outlook and Conclusion
  16. 16. AWD projects in the Philippines (Central Luzon) Angat Irrigation (AMRIS): B1; B2
  17. 17. Climatic AWD Suitability: Water Balance Rainfall (Rf) Potential Evapo-transpiration (pot_ET) Potential Seepage& Percolation (pot_S&P) Rf pot_ET pot_S&P
  18. 18. Climatic AWD Suitability of Central Luzon
  19. 19. Infra-structural AWD Suitability: Irrigation Specifics Methane emission reductions through AWD (vs. Continuous Flooding) 10 8 6 4 2 0 CF AWD t CO2-eq/ha*season B1 -77% Pump irrigation operated by farmer association 10 8 6 4 2 0 CF AWD t CO2-eq/ha*season T -70% Pump irrigation operated by irrigation authority Very suitable for AWD Very suitable for AWD
  20. 20. Infra-structual AWD Suitability: Methane emission reductions through AWD (vs. Continuous Flooding) 10 8 6 4 2 0 CF AWD t CO2-eq/ha*season B2 -66% 10 8 6 4 2 0 CF AWD t CO2-eq/ha*season N1 -65% Irrigation Specifics Canal irrigation (motivated farmers) Canal irrigation with imposed AWD Canal irrigation (non-motivated farmers) Very suitable for AWD Very suitable for AWD Not suitable for AWD 10 8 6 4 2 0 CF AWD t CO2-eq/ha*season N2 -5%
  21. 21. Introducing AWD
  22. 22. Lessons learned in case studies • Stress the co-benefits of AWD (such as stronger lodging resistance) to motivate farmers to adopt • Focus on ‘tail-end’ farmers to showcase the feasibility of AWD • Offer alternative irrigation options -- from single drainage to full AWD • Try to identify local ‘champions’ for technology adoption • Include irrigation authorities right from the onset of the project
  23. 23. Assist in Carbon Crediting? Small Scale Methodology Approved by UNFCCC (May 2011): “Methane emission reduction by adjusted water management in rice” http://cdm.unfccc.int/methodologies/DB/D6MRRHNNU5RUHJXWKHN87IUXW5F5N0/view.html
  24. 24. CDM Pipeline Project Developer Project Proposal Project Developer Designated Nat. Auth. Project Design Docum. Letter of ‘no objection’ Designated Operating Entity #1 Validation Report Designated Nat. Auth. Approved Methodology Letter of approval CDM Executive Board Project Regis-tration Certified Emission Reduction Project Developer Monitoring Report Designated Operating Entity #2 Verification Report CDM Executive Board Project Design Project Implementation and Monitoring
  25. 25. Methodology AMS-III.AU. Version 3.0 (since 03 Aug. 2012) Example: • AWD in dry season • Multiple aeration (1.8 kg ha/d) • 100 d period  180 kg CH4/ ha season = 3.78 t CO2 eq/ ha season  @ 0.50 $/ t CO2 eq. = < 2 $/ ha season
  26. 26. Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) Guidelines Vietnam Mot Phai/ Nam Giam (1 Must Do/ 5 Reductions) Philippines Palay Check Examples:
  27. 27. Outline • Background: Rice as a source of GHGs • Possible Options for Mitigation in Rice • Feasibility assessment for Alternate-Wetting-and-Drying • Outlook and Conclusion
  28. 28. New Project: “Mitigation Options to Reduce Methane Emissions in Paddy Rice” CCAC: • Partnership of governments, inter-governmental organizations, private sector (40 governments, 53 non-state entities) • Mission: Fight global warming and improve human health • Focus on SLCP (short-lived climate pollutants) • Operates under UNEP
  29. 29. CCAC initiatives 3 components • Open Agricultural Burning • Livestock/ Manure Management • Paddy Rice Production
  30. 30. New Project: “Mitigation Options to Reduce Methane Emissions in Paddy Rice” Overall Objective: Road maps for implementing replicable and scalable mitigation options focussing on AWD in 3 target countries: Vietnam Bangladesh Colombia
  31. 31. New Project: “Mitigation Options to Reduce Methane Emissions in Paddy Rice” Specific Objectives: 1) Improved information platforms 2) National networks, enhanced capacity and plans 3) Pilot studies in areas with AWD experience for extracting ‘lessons learnt’
  32. 32. Conclusions Policy makers are getting increasingly interested to integrate mitigation into development targets … BUT … different stakeholders will need diversified information packages and decision support tools
  33. 33. Conclusions Scientific findings and publications will NOT be sufficient as such to stimulate mitigation … BUT … should be translated into clear spatial and temporal priorities at different scales
  34. 34. Thank you

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