GENDER, ASSETS AND ADAPTATION
TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN KENYA:
THE ROLE OF GROUP-BASED APPROACHES
Marther Ngigi , Ulrike Mϋlle...
Introduction
• Performance of the agricultural sector
• Impact on national economic growth, income and poverty levels
• Ch...
Gender is important for adaptation
• Vulnerability to climate change is not gender neutral
• Worsened by limited access to...
Objectives
There is limited empirical evidence on how gender and
intra-household dynamics influence the adaptive capacitie...
Data and Methods
5
Three agro-ecological
zones:
• Temperate zone
• Othaya
• Mukurueni
• Humid zone
• Gem
• Siaya
• Semi-ar...
Data and Methods
• Data collected in 2012
• Random sample
• Intra-household data of 156 households
• Total of 312 responde...
Findings: Ownership and control of land and non-
land assets
7
Consumer
durable
Agricultural
durable
Cattle Small
ruminant...
Social capital participation and accumulation
Wife Husband Diff. in
mean
Social capital index 0.68 0.71 -0.3*
Membership i...
Gains from group-based approaches (% of responses)
9
22
32 32
74
81
38
47 49
65
69
Climate
information
Adaptation
ideas
Ac...
Examples of group-based projects
10
1 2
3 4
Access to information (% of responses)
Wife Husband Diff. in Mean
Crop production 89 97 -9**
Livestock production 73 88 -1...
Gender and adoption of climate-smart practices
• Women focus more on strategies related to crop production
• Change in cro...
Climate-smart practices
13
© Ngigi, 2013
13
Chaff cutter machine:
storage of fodder
Small livestock
Drought resistant crop...
Soil and water conservation practices
14
“Tumbukiza’ technology
Planting ‘pits’ Terraces
Water harvesting
Drivers for adaptation to climate change
15
• Age
• Agricultural durable asset
• Farmers field school
• Trust in informati...
Conclusions
• Substantial gender disparity in
• Access to assets
• Access to information
• Accumulation of social capital
...
Policy implications
• Gender disparity in the ownership of assets
• Empowering women’s bargaining and decision-making powe...
Acknowledgments
18
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Gender assets and adaptation to climate change in Kenya the role of group based approaches

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This paper was presented by Marther Ngigi on 14 May 2014 at the World Agroforesrty Centre In Nairobi Kenya.

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Gender assets and adaptation to climate change in Kenya the role of group based approaches

  1. 1. GENDER, ASSETS AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN KENYA: THE ROLE OF GROUP-BASED APPROACHES Marther Ngigi , Ulrike Mϋller, Regina Birner Corresponding author: martherngigi@gmail.com
  2. 2. Introduction • Performance of the agricultural sector • Impact on national economic growth, income and poverty levels • Challenge: climate change • Temperature has been rising by 3oC from 1960 to 2003 (Herrero et al. 2010) • Prolonged dry-spells, erratic rainfall and frequent flooding • Adoption of climate-smart agricultural practices • Adoption depends on • Individual characteristics  gender • Inequalities in household capital endowment • Access to rural services, such as climate and agricultural information 2
  3. 3. Gender is important for adaptation • Vulnerability to climate change is not gender neutral • Worsened by limited access to credit, inputs and extension services, land (FAO 2011; World Bank 2011) • Livelihood depends on natural resources • No inclusion in decision making (OECD 2012) • Climate change impacts are also not gender neutral • Women sell their assets to ensure food security in times of drought: cf. Angula (2010) for Namibia • Women reduce meals portions: cf. Serna (2011) for northern Kenya • High mortality during natural disasters (Neumayer & Plu (2007) • Increased workload after disasters (Bynoe 2009) • Programs supporting gender equality in Kenya • Kenyan constitution • Social and women funds 3
  4. 4. Objectives There is limited empirical evidence on how gender and intra-household dynamics influence the adaptive capacities of men and women 1. To examine husbands’ and wives’ adaptive capacity • Domain of differentiated access over resources • Access to agricultural information • Role of group based approaches: social capital 2. To assess husbands’ and wives’ adaptation strategies 3. To examine husbands’ and wives’ drivers of adoption of climate-smart agricultural strategies 4
  5. 5. Data and Methods 5 Three agro-ecological zones: • Temperate zone • Othaya • Mukurueni • Humid zone • Gem • Siaya • Semi-arid zone • Mbeere South • Njoro Othaya Siaya /Gem Njoro Othaya /Mukurueni Mbeere
  6. 6. Data and Methods • Data collected in 2012 • Random sample • Intra-household data of 156 households • Total of 312 respondents • Gender-disaggregated data • Gender-disaggregated focus group discussions • Use non-parametric and parametric analysis 6
  7. 7. Findings: Ownership and control of land and non- land assets 7 Consumer durable Agricultural durable Cattle Small ruminant livestock Draft livestock Decision on land use 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Husband Wife Joint Who owns these assets?
  8. 8. Social capital participation and accumulation Wife Husband Diff. in mean Social capital index 0.68 0.71 -0.3* Membership in social groups (%) 91 81 10** Involvement in group activities (%) 90 83 7* Involvement in community work (%) 36 67 -31*** Support from friends (%) 30 17 13* Community-based organizations (%) 17 24 -7* Soil and water management (%) 3 3 0 Farmer groups (%) 8 34 -26** Number of groups 1.26 1.15 0.11 8
  9. 9. Gains from group-based approaches (% of responses) 9 22 32 32 74 81 38 47 49 65 69 Climate information Adaptation ideas Access to input Livelihood diversification Risk management 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Percentageofresponses Wife Husband Did you get this benefit from the group?
  10. 10. Examples of group-based projects 10 1 2 3 4
  11. 11. Access to information (% of responses) Wife Husband Diff. in Mean Crop production 89 97 -9** Livestock production 73 88 -15*** Access to extension agents 60 82 -26*** Farm visit 24 46 -21*** Farmers’ field school 42 21 21*** Climate change (CC) information 87 88 -1 Advice on adapting to CC 62 59 3 Weather forecast 64 45 19*** Early warning 26 39 -13*** 11
  12. 12. Gender and adoption of climate-smart practices • Women focus more on strategies related to crop production • Change in crop variety and type • Change in planting dates: early planting • Increase land under production • Soil conservation and management • Men focus more on strategies related to livestock production • Change in feeding practices • Change in animal breeds • Destocking • Men focus more on agroforestry • Changing gender roles in households during extreme climate events • Fetching water • Looking for distant fodder sources 12
  13. 13. Climate-smart practices 13 © Ngigi, 2013 13 Chaff cutter machine: storage of fodder Small livestock Drought resistant crops: sorghum Sack vegetable production
  14. 14. Soil and water conservation practices 14 “Tumbukiza’ technology Planting ‘pits’ Terraces Water harvesting
  15. 15. Drivers for adaptation to climate change 15 • Age • Agricultural durable asset • Farmers field school • Trust in information • Traditions, culture and norms • Perception of climate change • Social capital index • Total livestock holding • Early warning • Bargaining power on land use • Number of information sources • Perception of climate change Wives Husbands
  16. 16. Conclusions • Substantial gender disparity in • Access to assets • Access to information • Accumulation of social capital • Group based approaches • Essential for sharing information and adaptation ideas • Important for livelihood diversification and risk management • Women and men adapt differently • Gender-linked factors • Assets • Different roles in the household • Information • Decision making power • Social capital 16
  17. 17. Policy implications • Gender disparity in the ownership of assets • Empowering women’s bargaining and decision-making power • Awareness and full implementation of the constitution • Access to information • Employ gender-sensitive extension approaches • Use most accessible channels of communication • Improve the quality and accuracy of the information: trust • Capacity building • Scaling-up of group-based approaches • Information sharing • Risk management • Livelihood diversification • Encourage adaptation of gender biased practices • Not to increase the labor burden to one gender • Address cultures and traditions 17
  18. 18. Acknowledgments 18

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