Planning for climate-smart agricultural landscapes: The case of Kenya’s Kericho-Mau landscape


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Ideas Marketplace presentation from The Rainforest Alliance and EcoAgriculture Partners. Presented at Agriculture, Landscapes and Livelihoods Day 5 in Doha Qatar, 3 December 2012.

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  • NOTES:Underscore limitations on scope:The thematic scope of the study is on assessing actions at the farm- or factory-level that could be implemented by the Kenyan Tea industry to enhance the adoption of climate-smart agriculture. Given this, a primary focus is on actions that can be undertaken by smallholder tea farmers, tea factories, multinational estates, technical assistance providers, certification bodies, Kenyan government, research and regulatory agencies, and other actors who may play a direct role in supporting uptake of climate-smart agriculture at the farm- or factory-level. The geographic scope of the study is the Rift Valley province of Western Kenya, in and around the Kericho township and the Mau Forest Complex. A map of the study area is seen in Figure 1. This area was selected due to its status as a primary tea growing region, its proximity to the Mau Forest – one of Kenya’s primary water towers – , and because it can constitutes an ecologically and socioeconomically cohesive area. [can refer to below as needed]Consultative meetings were held in-person in Kenya with key stakeholders identified by Rainforest Alliance staff and partners from March 12th- 20th, 2012 to collect data and identify barriers, opportunities and industry trends. This included a KTDA Factory visit on March 14th, 2012. A complete list of meetings is found in Annex 1. On March 21st, 2012, a workshop was held in which Rainforest Alliance, Partner Africa, and AfriCert Ltd staff analyzed the main obstacles to implementing climate-smart agricultural practices as identified by the SAN Climate Module. Direct consultations through meetings and workshops were complemented by RA internal reviews of previous documents and reports on agricultural mitigation initiatives in East Africa, as well as web-based internet searches. Data collected and subsequent findings were collated and analyzed to produce this report.The SAN Climate Module is a voluntary add-on to the SAN Standard that provides a framework for strengthening agricultural adaptation and mitigation. For more information, see: The Rainforest Alliance applied the tool through consultations with teaindustry stakeholders including representatives from business, government,NGOs, research institutions, and donors.
  • NOTES:- can drawuponbelow in referencing “whatstherenow”Initiatives designed to increase the adoption of “climate-smart agriculture” in the Kenyan tea industry should bear in mind the following guiding considerations:If it ain’t broke…: The Kenyan tea industry is well resourced and organized and already has accumulated considerable knowledge and practical experience on how to address climate change. Initiatives designed to upscale “climate-smart agriculture” should be nested within existing industry structures, build upon and reinforce prior and current projects, and be aligned with previously identified priorities for climate change adaptation and mitigation.Build the business case: Tea is the primary livelihood for millions of Kenyan farmers and workers. Climate-smart agricultural activities must first and foremost enhance productivity, improve yields and increase bottom-line, and support assured supply of high-quality tea into the future. The means to an end: Multinational estates and the KTDA in many cases have already established ambitious goals, programs and policies to enhance sustainability. Rather than move goalposts, there is more value in executing the research, tools, guidance and training - the concrete means - through which these goals can be achieved and policies better complied with. Climate-smart agricultural activities should naturally align with, reinforce, and complement existing industry and company policies and sustainability commitments. E.g. Unilever’s Sustainable Living Plan, which includes a target to halve the greenhouse gas impacts across all its product lifecycles by 2020. See:
  • NOTES:Underscoreneed to align with and reinforceexistingindustryefforts, alignclimate-smartwork with businessinterests and local economy.Underscoreneed to do more on ADAPTATION – requireshighinvestment and coordination.Otherillustrativeexamples of howclimatefinancecouldcontribute to thisvisioninclude: Providing up-front investment to producer associations to finance their adoption of climate-smart agricultural practices, codified by credible standards or programs, and contingent upon i) achieving compliance with that standard/program within a defined time period; and ii) securing a buyer and long-term contractual arrangements for the climate-smart tea to be sold.Channeling additional investment to the KTDA and TRFK to strengthen the capacity-building and extension arms of these institutions, with a focus on technical assistance for climate-smart agricultural practices.Finance a multi-stakeholder, ‘community of practice’ to share experiences and define and implement a collective workplan for supporting climate-smart agriculture in the Kericho/Mau Forest area.Enable more robust tea industry representation in climate policy making fora (e.g. REDD+ roundtables), as a means to bring lessons learned to these bodies and inform policy. Establish/finance task forces to operationalize potential new recommendations/regulations on adaptation and mitigation in the tea industry.Earmark funding for public-private partnerships on climate-smart agriculture that include existing tea buyers and government agencies, as a means to leverage private sector investment. Commission research to: i) more accurately quantify the mitigation and adaptation benefits of CSA; ii) explore alignment with/complementarity to Kenya’s REDD+ program; iii) systematize and document lessons learned and early experiences with CSA implementation for policymakers; and iv) resolve outstanding research needs identified in section 5.1.
  • Assessmenttool general approachshouldapplyacrossmostlandscapes. Prioritizeconsultationwith local implementors (e.g. land managers) as these are agentswhowillultimatelyoperationalizeclimate-smartlandscapeplans.
  • Planning for climate-smart agricultural landscapes: The case of Kenya’s Kericho-Mau landscape

    1. 1. EXPLORING HOW TO UPSCALE CLIMATE-SMART PRACTICES FROM Rainforest Alliance & FARM TO LANDSCAPE: EcoAgriculture Partners Mark Moroge & Rachel A CASE STUDY OF KERICHO-MAU Friedman 3 December 2012 ALL Day Doha, Qatar©2009 Rainforest Alliance
    2. 2. WHAT DOES A CLIMATE-SMART LANDSCAPE LOOKLIKE? Restore Degraded Protect Natural watershed and Habitats Rangelands Enrich Soil Carbon Climate-Friendly Livestock Systems Farm with Perennials 2
    3. 3. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS Methods: • Consultative meetings, field visits, workshop - coordinated by field staff • Desk-review • Guided by structured assessment tool Objectives: 1. Understand the operating context and existing activities to support climate-smart agriculture 2. Assess and suggest primary opportunities for upscaling adoption 3. Identify sources of finance to support upscaling, e.g. climate finance. 3
    4. 4. FINDINGSWhat’s there now?• Sound structure, organization, management and financing of Kenyan tea industry• Commitments from multinationals and Kenya Tea Development Agency (>500K smallholders) to achieve Rainforest Alliance Certification for sustainable agriculture• Coordination between multinationals and smallholders• High industry interest in addressing adaptationWhat more could be done?• Upscale climate-smart education and training• Optimize fuelwood consumption, sustainably manage eucalyptus• Support a ‘community of practice’ to transfer knowledge, technology 4
    5. 5. THE BEGINNINGS OF A VISION FOR A CLIMATE-SMARTLANDSCAPE IN KERICHO Harness existing sustainability commitments and growing global demand for certification to train hundreds of thousands of producers, while leveraging government and private sector investment to secure long-term implementation of these.Climate finance priorities…• Fill gaps to reinforce value chain investment in sustainable tea; layer adaptation/mitigation focus atop sound foundation – Reduce smallholder costs of adoption of climate-smart practices – Finance policy and coordination work across institutions and industry – Coordinate landscape scale adaptation planning, assessment tools 5
    6. 6. CONSIDERATIONS FOR FUTURE PILOTING1. Not all landscapes created equal. Search for quick wins. Potential quick win conditions include: • Landscapes dominated by 1-2 crops • Potential for aggregation/upscaling (e.g. cooperative structures) • Crops are key contributor to regional/national GDP (bellweather for investment potential) • Strong private sector engagement; existing/potential linkages to international markets • Functional and well-managed government institutions.2. Context is king – consult heavily with local implementors to ensure recommendations are practical. 6
    7. 7. THANKS!Mark Moroge Rachel FriedmanProjects Manager, Climate Program Associate,Program EcoAgriculture The Rainforest Alliance works to conserve biodiversity and ensure sustainable livelihoods by transforming land-use practices, business practices and consumer behavior.