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Evergreen Agriculture from Agriculture and Rural Development Day (ARDD) 2011



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Evergreen Agriculture from Agriculture and Rural Development Day (ARDD) 2011

  1. 1. Evergreen Agriculture What is it, what makes it work, and what is the promise? Dennis Garrity Distinguished Board Research Fellow World Agroforestry Centre Drylands Ambassador, UN Convention to Combat Desertification
  2. 2. Two Major Types of Evergreen Agriculture (1) Farmer-Managed Natural Regeneration of Indigenous Trees on Farmlands, as in the Sahel (2) Trees planted in annual cropping systems, as in Eastern and Southern Africa and South Asia
  3. 3. The albida halo effect
  4. 4. Farmer-Managed Natural Regeneration of Indigenous Trees in the semiarid lands of the Sahel
  5. 5. High-density Faidherbia millet systems in Niger
  6. 6. 5 m ha of parklands dominated by Faidherbia in Niger
  7. 7. Expansion of agroforestry parklands in W Africa A basis for a new vision of regreening the Sahel
  8. 8. Key examples of Evergreen Agriculture in Eastern and Southern Africa •  Faidherbia albida in maize production systems •  Fodder shrubs for balanced dairy nutrition •  Mango and other fruits intercropped in maize systems •  Grevillia robusta intercropped in maize for timber, fodder & fuel •  Intercropped coppicing leguminous trees in maize (eg Gliricidia in Malawi) •  Relay-cropped leguminous species managed as annual green manure (eg Tephrosia) •  Improved fallows with leguminous species (eg Sesbania sesban)
  9. 9. National recommendations for maize in Malawi & Zambia: Faidherbia Fertilizer Trees at 100 trees per ha
  10. 10. Malawi National Agroforestry Food Security Programme
  11. 11. Impact of fertilizer trees on maize yield _______________________________________ Plot management Yield (t/ha) Maize only 1.30 Maize + fertilizer trees 3.05 ____________________________________________________________ Survey of farms in six districts (Mzimba, Lilongwe, Mulanje, Salima, Thyolo and Machinga)
  12. 12. Kenyan Farmlands: Bold policy to achieve >10% tree cover on farms through a National Evergreen Agriculture Programme
  13. 13. Faidherbia albida is commonly found in cereal crop systems in Ethiopia. Government is launching a new programme in 2012 to plant 100 m more trees.
  14. 14. For More Information World Agroforestry Centre Evergreen Agriculture page evergreen_agriculture Email contacts: – 
  15. 15. The Next Phase Accelerate the ongoing national scaling- up programmes in Malawi, Zambia, Burkina Faso and Niger National Agroforestry Food Security Programmes being developed for Senegal, Ethiopia, Rwanda, and Kenya Preparatory work for new programmes under way in Tanzania, Mali, and 12 other countries
  16. 16. What are the key research issues? Quality genetics •  More complete germplasm collection & characterization •  More extensive provenance trials •  Identification of superior seed sources Propagation and agronomy •  Better propagation and tree establishment methods •  Determine optimum tree densities •  Elucidate optimum soil fertility synergies between organic and inorganic nutrient sources Carbon sequestration and climate change •  Carbon estimates (soil & above-ground) and modeling •  Methodologies for smallholder carbon projects Biodiversity effects of agroforests on croplands Economics, social & cultural aspects Policy reform Targeting & Scaling-up methodologies