Developing sound climate-smart strategies based on zoom-ins
Developing sound climate-smart strategies based on zoom-ins Michael Dingkuhn, CIRAD-IRRI-CCAFS“Developing Climate-Smart Crops for a 2030 World” Workshop ILRI, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 6-8 December 2011
Questions on zoom-ins• Rice, sorghum, beans, banana/plantain• How many zoom-ins per species?• Selection criteria?• Funding per zoom-in?• Integration with local / international projects?• Breeder interactions?• Modeling support?
Typologies: 1. crop type Rice Sorghum Rainfed Traditional ImprovedIrrigated Upland African FF/FFF Lowland grain Direct Favorable … … … …seeded intensive Trans Unfav’ble … … … …planted extensive Typologies: 2. RegionMonsoonal WA LA SE Asia Savannahs Savannahs … … … EA mid- WA IGP highlands Savannahs … … … Sahel … … … … …
Typologies:3. Institutional priorities & CC-specific analyses• NARS home priorities• CG centres’ regional/global typologies & stats• New info on vulnerability to CC• New info on potential gains from CC Need to integrate info, also consider practical issues, construct a doable program
Key questions – How many zoom-ins? Which ones? Criteria? – How can breeders participate in CC adaptation research? – There is a lot of CC adaptation research going on in CG centers, including modeling. How can we tap into it while maintaining NARS focus?Key statements (may be right or wrong) – Land/food will be the «oil» of the 2030s. Forget about traditional systems. Focus radically on intensification – Breeders only need to know the environments they will breed for. No need for models, we know what we have to do – Breeders have been most successful when going for yield, not physiological adaptations. But this will change with genomic selection, where we will need tailored ideotype concepts – Focus more on opportunities coming from CC (e.g., CO2 fertilization; less chilling & more rain in some areas); For the constraints, trust in agronomy & risk management
Evolution of rice genetic ‘Immortalized’ 2K O. sativa reference paneldiversity platform 2000+ lines genome- 10500 lines wild 1st rice 20 varieties wide SNP & cultivated genome accessions genome-wide SNP Association genetics sequenced sequenced platform 2012 2005 2008 2011 O. meridionalis Indica Aus Admixed Aromatic & O. rufipogon Admixed Japonica (Papua New Guinea) Aromatic
Global Rice Phenotyping Network of GRiSP++Yield potentialPhotosyntheticpotentialPlant type, architectureHeat, chillingDroughtSalinityEarly vigor CO2 FACECrowdingl
The molecular breeding revolution must aim at future CO2 levels
Objective: Doubling of CO2: Doubling of an external resource,Not only measuring 500 as long as it is limiting:CO2 impact; Large increase of biomass, OR=> optimising CO2 use ppm Halving of collateral losses (transpiration)in crops! Limitations from PAR & N? 400 300 2050 Time to develop new variety Green revolution Pre-industrial Genomic revolution Molecular breeding 200 Massive opportunity for breeding?
FACE facility design FACE 75m office 75m A FACE facility on IRRI farm with 8 rings (4 ambient [green] and 4 elevated CO2 [orange]) each of size 25m diameter (300m2) on a 20 acre area 1m buffer zone Individual plots 28.8m2 check plot Walkways GRiSP: Plans for a phenotyping/breeding25.0 m Field platform with enhanced CO2