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Demystifying GHG inventories and MRV systems

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Presentation by Ngonidzashe Chirinda, CIAT, at the CLIFF-GRADS workshop on 6-7 October 2019 in Bali.

The two-day workshop was organized by the CCAFS Low Emissions Development Flagship and the Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases (GRA). Read more: https://ccafs.cgiar.org/cliff-grads-workshop

Published in: Environment
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Demystifying GHG inventories and MRV systems

  1. 1. Ngonidzashe Chirinda CLIFF-GRADS WORKSHOP OCTOBER 6-7, 2019 - BALI, INDONESIA Demystifying GHG inventories and MRV systems Photo 1
  2. 2. What is an MRV systems? • Mechanism to ensure information on GHG emissions, mitigation actions and support is reliable, transparent and comprehensive • M = Measurement (quantifying/counting/estimation) • R = Reporting – (being accountable) • V = Verification – (Oversight/independent confirmation) • MRV system of any actions is important for transparency, determining effectiveness and in-forming decision-making. Photo 2
  3. 3. • John attends inspiring conference – promises to contribute towards achieving personally determined poverty mitigation targets. • Possible indicators of progress, money, support, plans and actions • Leader attends COP X - promises convention to contribute towards achieving nationally determined climate change mitigation targets • Possible indicators of progress, GHG emissions reductions, support, polices, institutions Developing country (DC)John
  4. 4. John • 1st challenge - since this decision is coming during the course of life, what should be the baseline year (day of the conference or before)? • 2nd challenge – Which areas should he monitored to determine indicator dynamics and the impact and success of his chosen actions DC • 1st challenge - since this decision is coming while there is already some economic activity in DC, what should be the baseline year (year of signing or before)? • 2nd challenge - Which areas should they monitor to determine indicator dynamics and the impact and success of his chosen actions
  5. 5. John • 3th challenge – How and with what frequency should progress be monitored. • 4th challenge - How and with what frequency should progress be reported to the conference organizers who also want to compile a report on the impact of the conference • 5th challenge - If John claims he is now less poor can this claim be verified by an independent person DC • 3th challenge – How and with what frequency should progress be monitored. • 4th challenge - How and with what frequency should progress be reported to the conference organizers who also want to compile a report on the impact of the conference • 5th challenge - If the DC claims it now has lower emissions. Can this claim be verified by an independent person
  6. 6. Scope of Agricultural MRV systems • MRV of emissions: estimation of emissions at different scales (project or national) and sectors • MRV of NAMAs: impacts of mitigation policies and actions • MRV of support: impacts of financial flows/technology transfer/capacity building
  7. 7. National communications (NC) Includes information on: • National circumstances & institutional arrangements • National GHG inventories • Important information on climate change adaptation and mitigation actions • Challenges • • Capacity-building needs Photo 3
  8. 8. Why GHG inventories? • Knowledge on magnitude & distribution of emissions sources & sinks • Basis for informing ambitions and evaluating existing efforts • Need to be transparent, complete, accurate, consistent over time, and comparable across countries • For agricultural GHG emissions, inventories remain the main tool connecting policy with mitigation
  9. 9. National GHG inventories • IPCC Guidelines for National GHG Inventories divided into various levels or tiers. • Higher tiers require more data leading to more accurate the emission estimates. • With sufficient data country can us higher tiers for either a source category or technology. • Baseline year for GHG inventories is 1994 or 1990 (Remember: UNFCCC was adopted in 1992 and entered into force in 1994)
  10. 10. The Carbon Story (slides from Stephen M. Ogle)
  11. 11. N A T U R A L R E S O U R C E E C O L O G Y L A B O R A T O R Y Limited Reporting of Soil C Stock Changes to UNFCCC A. Enteric Methane B. Manure Emissions C. Soil N2O D. Soil C stock changes Ogle et al. 2014, Global Change Biology
  12. 12. N A T U R A L R E S O U R C E E C O L O G Y L A B O R A T O R Y Del Grosso et al. 2011, US-EPA 2016
  13. 13. • Crop type and sequence • Tillage practice • Residue management • Mineral fertilization • Manure and other organic fertilization practices • Irrigation • Liming Data Requirements • Improved crop varieties • Cover crops • Vegetated/bare fallow • Soil type • Climate type • Need to know each unique management system
  14. 14. N A T U R A L R E S O U R C E E C O L O G Y L A B O R A T O R Y Current IPCC Default Model 2006 IPCC National GHG Inventory Guidelines Volume 4, Chapter 2
  15. 15. N A T U R A L R E S O U R C E E C O L O G Y L A B O R A T O R Y Alternative Model Organic Amendments Three Pool Model Irrigation Active Slow Passive Litter/Residue Yields/NPP Soils Data Residue:Yield Root:Shoot C, N, Lignin Fractions Climate Data Tillage Livestock/Other Parton et al. 1987, SSSAJ; 2019 Refinement to the IPCC’s 2006 guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventory methodologies Can be applied with considerably less data, and more readily available data, compared to current IPCC default method!
  16. 16. Components of a MRV for soil C change • Benchmark sites (long-term experiments, well characterised chronosequences or paired sampling sites) • Representative land cover/ land use types, soil types and management • C change measured every few years • Consider models as proposed in the 2019 Refinement to the IPCC’s 2006 guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventory methodologies Smith et al 2019 Global Change Biology
  17. 17. References • Photo 1: https://infocus.dellemc.com/william_schmarzo/de-mystifying-big-data-business-model- maturity-model-index/demystify/ • Photo 2: https://www.eginnovations.com/blog/how-can-i-use-microsoft-scom-for-end-to-end- performance-monitoring/ • Photo 3: https://www.ccacoalition.org/en/resources/executive-summary-third-national- communication-colombia-united-nations-framework

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