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Prese   David Mowbray             Contact:   dmowbray@farmradio.org                         nter:                         ...
Prese   David Mowbray             Contact:   dmowbray@farmradio.org                                                  nter:...
Prese   David Mowbray             Contact:   dmowbray@farmradio.org                            nter:               Farm Ra...
Prese   David Mowbray             Contact:   dmowbray@farmradio.org                         nter:               • Do these...
Prese    David Mowbray             Contact:   dmowbray@farmradio.org                              nter:             Source...
Prese   David Mowbray             Contact:   dmowbray@farmradio.org                         nter:                         ...
Prese    David Mowbray                    Contact:   dmowbray@farmradio.org                                        nter:  ...
Prese   David Mowbray             Contact:   dmowbray@farmradio.org                          nter:             • The class...
Prese   David Mowbray             Contact:   dmowbray@farmradio.org                         nter:                         ...
Prese   David Mowbray             Contact:   dmowbray@farmradio.org                                 nter:             “The...
Prese   David Mowbray             Contact:   dmowbray@farmradio.org                         nter:Learn More   www.farmradi...
Prese    David Mowbray             Contact:   dmowbray@farmradio.org                         nter:                        ...
Prese   David Mowbray             Contact:   dmowbray@farmradio.org                         nter:                         ...
Prese   David Mowbray             Contact:   dmowbray@farmradio.org                         nter:       Could radio make a...
Prese   David Mowbray             Contact:   dmowbray@farmradio.org                         nter:                         ...
Prese   David Mowbray             Contact:   dmowbray@farmradio.org                         nter:                      Our...
Prese   David Mowbray             Contact:   dmowbray@farmradio.org                         nter:                       Th...
Prese   David Mowbray             Contact:   dmowbray@farmradio.org                         nter:                       Th...
Prese   David Mowbray             Contact:   dmowbray@farmradio.org                         nter:                       Th...
Prese   David Mowbray             Contact:   dmowbray@farmradio.org                         nter:                       Th...
Prese   David Mowbray             Contact:   dmowbray@farmradio.org                         nter:                       Th...
Prese   David Mowbray             Contact:   dmowbray@farmradio.org                            nter:                   Exp...
Prese   David Mowbray             Contact:   dmowbray@farmradio.org                              nter:                   E...
Prese   David Mowbray             Contact:   dmowbray@farmradio.org                         nter:                  PRCs – ...
Prese   David Mowbray             Contact:   dmowbray@farmradio.org                                                     nt...
Prese     David Mowbray                       Contact:    dmowbray@farmradio.org                                          ...
Prese   David Mowbray             Contact:   dmowbray@farmradio.org                         nter:                        L...
Prese   David Mowbray             Contact:   dmowbray@farmradio.org                         nter:                        L...
Prese   David Mowbray             Contact:   dmowbray@farmradio.org                         nter:                         ...
Prese   David Mowbray             Contact:   dmowbray@farmradio.org                          nter:    Challenges during th...
Prese   David Mowbray             Contact:   dmowbray@farmradio.org                         nter:                         ...
Prese   David Mowbray             Contact:   dmowbray@farmradio.org                             nter:    Challenges during...
Prese   David Mowbray             Contact:   dmowbray@farmradio.org                         nter:                         ...
Prese   David Mowbray             Contact:   dmowbray@farmradio.org                         nter:    Why did the PRC appro...
Prese   David Mowbray             Contact:   dmowbray@farmradio.org                         nter:     Why does other radio...
Prese   David Mowbray             Contact:   dmowbray@farmradio.org                         nter:                         ...
Prese   David Mowbray             Contact:   dmowbray@farmradio.org                         nter:                         ...
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Mowbray - Farm Rural Radio Kenya - 2012 - 09- 17

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The CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) East Africa office did a pilot project with a local radio station in Eastern Kenya — Mbaitu FM. The 30 minute radio show was called “Wasya wa Muimi” and gave support and information to local farmers that listened to the program. Presentation by David Mowbray, for the EA Regional Office.

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Mowbray - Farm Rural Radio Kenya - 2012 - 09- 17

  1. Prese David Mowbray Contact: dmowbray@farmradio.org nter: 1Learn More www.farmradio.org info@farmradio.org @farmradio
  2. Prese David Mowbray Contact: dmowbray@farmradio.org nter: Sneak preview Total trial adopters – families who tried on their farms what they heard about on the radio 7,000,000 ~1,000,000 small- 6,000,000 scale farm households Total beneficiaries 5,000,000 ~14,000 total 4,000,000 beneficiaries in 3,000,000 communities that 2,000,000 received active > 6 million 1,000,000 intervention by beneficiaries in 0 research communities teams, extension with radio only. and broadcasters No other extra 2 interventionLearn More www.farmradio.org info@farmradio.org @farmradio
  3. Prese David Mowbray Contact: dmowbray@farmradio.org nter: Farm Radio for Impact A powerful tool to foster the adoption of agricultural technologies that will transform lives in AfricaLearn More www.farmradio.org info@farmradio.org @farmradio
  4. Prese David Mowbray Contact: dmowbray@farmradio.org nter: • Do these names mean anything to you? – Everett Rogers – Bryce Ryan – Neal C. Gross 4Learn More www.farmradio.org info@farmradio.org @farmradio
  5. Prese David Mowbray Contact: dmowbray@farmradio.org nter: Source: Ryan and Gross, 1943 5Learn More www.farmradio.org info@farmradio.org @farmradio
  6. Prese David Mowbray Contact: dmowbray@farmradio.org nter: 6Learn More www.farmradio.org info@farmradio.org @farmradio
  7. Prese David Mowbray Contact: dmowbray@farmradio.org nter: 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 7Learn More www.farmradio.org info@farmradio.org @farmradio
  8. Prese David Mowbray Contact: dmowbray@farmradio.org nter: • The classic diffusion-adoption model – An innovation – Communications channel(s) – Time – Social system 8Learn More www.farmradio.org info@farmradio.org @farmradio
  9. Prese David Mowbray Contact: dmowbray@farmradio.org nter: 9Learn More www.farmradio.org info@farmradio.org @farmradio
  10. Prese David Mowbray Contact: dmowbray@farmradio.org nter: “The farmer-to-farmer exchanges of their personal experiences with hybrid seed were at the heart of diffusion. When enough such positive experiences were accumulated by innovators, and especially by early adopters, and exchanged with other farmers in the community the rate of adoption took off. This threshold for hybrid corn occurred in 1935. After that point, it would have been impossible to halt its further diffusion.” Everett Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations, 1962 10Learn More www.farmradio.org info@farmradio.org @farmradio
  11. Prese David Mowbray Contact: dmowbray@farmradio.org nter:Learn More www.farmradio.org info@farmradio.org @farmradio
  12. Prese David Mowbray Contact: dmowbray@farmradio.org nter: So what’s radio got to do with it? • Radio is the number one source of information for small-scale farm families in Africa • Nearly 80% have access to radio • Farm radio broadcasts have existed for a long time • Most of them have failed to inspire large scale change 12 12Learn More www.farmradio.org info@farmradio.org @farmradio
  13. Prese David Mowbray Contact: dmowbray@farmradio.org nter: 13Learn More www.farmradio.org info@farmradio.org @farmradio
  14. Prese David Mowbray Contact: dmowbray@farmradio.org nter: Could radio make a difference? • Bill & Melinda Gates • There was no analysis of Foundation asked Farm existing farm radio Radio International that content, formats, question modalities or audience • --and funded us to find sizes an answer • While Farm Radio • There was only International had ~ 250 anecdotal information partner stations in no good studies Africa we didn’t know much about them 14 14Learn More www.farmradio.org info@farmradio.org @farmradio
  15. Prese David Mowbray Contact: dmowbray@farmradio.org nter: 15Learn More www.farmradio.org info@farmradio.org @farmradio
  16. Prese David Mowbray Contact: dmowbray@farmradio.org nter: Our experiment The African Farm Radio Research Initiative • Work done from 2007-2011 • 25 stations (5 / country) • State, commercial, commun ity, church • 49 Participatory Radio Campaigns 16 16Learn More www.farmradio.org info@farmradio.org @farmradio
  17. Prese David Mowbray Contact: dmowbray@farmradio.org nter: The Participatory Radio Campaign (PRC) • Key elements of the campaigns –The improvement was one farmers in participating villages said they wanted –The improvement was one that was already tested and available –Every week our stations broadcast a radio program devoted to explaining the improvement, its strengths and weaknesses 17Learn More www.farmradio.org info@farmradio.org @farmradio
  18. Prese David Mowbray Contact: dmowbray@farmradio.org nter: The Participatory Radio Campaign (PRC) • Key elements of the campaigns –Broadcasts were scheduled at times farmers said would be most convenient –Every program featured interviews & other content from members of the participating, “Active Communities” –Every episode gave the audience an opportunity to comment, be heard 18Learn More www.farmradio.org info@farmradio.org @farmradio
  19. Prese David Mowbray Contact: dmowbray@farmradio.org nter: The Participatory Radio Campaign (PRC) • Key elements of the campaigns –A core story, featuring a successful farmer’s experience gave continuity every week –At about the 2/3rd mark listeners were asked to make a decision about whether or not to try the improvement they’d heard about. 19Learn More www.farmradio.org info@farmradio.org @farmradio
  20. Prese David Mowbray Contact: dmowbray@farmradio.org nter: The Participatory Radio Campaign (PRC) • Key elements of the campaigns –For the remaining weeks the programs gave ongoing advice and information targeted to the farmers who had decided to try the improvement or innovation. 20Learn More www.farmradio.org info@farmradio.org @farmradio
  21. Prese David Mowbray Contact: dmowbray@farmradio.org nter: The Participatory Radio Campaign (PRC) • Key elements of the campaigns –After the staff took a basic radio training workshop, production responsibility was left completely to the radio stations themselves. –Content was supervised for each radio station by a technical advisory committee that included content experts and other stakeholders 21Learn More www.farmradio.org info@farmradio.org @farmradio
  22. Prese David Mowbray Contact: dmowbray@farmradio.org nter: Experiment design Broadcast area Signal obstacle Community Participating community Control community 22 22Learn More www.farmradio.org info@farmradio.org @farmradio
  23. Prese David Mowbray Contact: dmowbray@farmradio.org nter: Experiment design The outcome evaluation survey • Surveyed participating communities (ALC) • Surveyed non- participating communities (PLC) • Surveyed control communities 23 23Learn More www.farmradio.org info@farmradio.org @farmradio
  24. Prese David Mowbray Contact: dmowbray@farmradio.org nter: PRCs – compelling results 24Learn More www.farmradio.org info@farmradio.org @farmradio
  25. Prese David Mowbray Contact: dmowbray@farmradio.org nter: A grand scale Total trial adopters – families who tried on their farms what they heard about on the radio ~1,000,000 small-scale Total beneficiaries 7,000,000 6,000,000 farm 5,000,000 households 4,000,000 3,000,000 2,000,000 Active, ongoin 1,000,000 g intervention 0 by Heard radio only. researchers, e No other extra xtension and intervention. broadcasters. 25Learn More www.farmradio.org info@farmradio.org @farmradio
  26. Prese David Mowbray Contact: dmowbray@farmradio.org nter: PRCs – facilitate adoption Relationship between frequency of listening to PRC broadcasts and percentage of respondents trying the new practice 60% Percentage of respondents trying PRC practice 50% R² = 0.957 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Listened to 1-24% 25-49% 50% 51-74% 75-99% Listened to None of the 100% of the PRC PRC Percentage of PRC episodes heard by respondents 26Learn More www.farmradio.org info@farmradio.org @farmradio
  27. Prese David Mowbray Contact: dmowbray@farmradio.org nter: Limitations • Only did one PRC for • Radio station must be one season, no popular and trusted in continuation from year the first place to year (nature of • Quality control of experiment) content when in • Based on other studies vernacular language is need a longer period not easy with repetition to get to • Could only measure later adopters more trial adoption not full quickly adoption 27 27Learn More www.farmradio.org info@farmradio.org @farmradio
  28. Prese David Mowbray Contact: dmowbray@farmradio.org nter: Limitations • Some technologies • Because of limited selected by farmers (but experience and possibly driven by capacity, some of the external interests) did initial 25 partner radio not lend themselves stations did not well to the PRC model implement the PRC and approach model very well. – E.g. establishing group • That is why results are marketing clubs for based on just 15 some commodities stations & campaigns 28 28Learn More www.farmradio.org info@farmradio.org @farmradio
  29. Prese David Mowbray Contact: dmowbray@farmradio.org nter: 29Learn More www.farmradio.org info@farmradio.org @farmradio
  30. Prese David Mowbray Contact: dmowbray@farmradio.org nter: Challenges during the experiment led to our own innovations • Partner radio stations were not equipped to go to rural communities and interview farmers. Professional recorders were in short supply and very expensive ($400). • Solution – MP3 players with built-in recording capability. – Cost $50 each (today down to $35) 30 30Learn More www.farmradio.org info@farmradio.org @farmradio
  31. Prese David Mowbray Contact: dmowbray@farmradio.org nter: 31Learn More www.farmradio.org info@farmradio.org @farmradio
  32. Prese David Mowbray Contact: dmowbray@farmradio.org nter: Challenges during the experiment led to our own innovations • Partner radio stations were not equipped to take listener feedback • Solution – Inexpensive SMS recording systems took messages and text – SMS alert systems sent messages to subscribing farmers to remind them of the upcoming show 32 32Learn More www.farmradio.org info@farmradio.org @farmradio
  33. Prese David Mowbray Contact: dmowbray@farmradio.org nter: 33Learn More www.farmradio.org info@farmradio.org @farmradio
  34. Prese David Mowbray Contact: dmowbray@farmradio.org nter: Why did the PRC approach work? • Our radio programs • Our radio programs were farmer-to-farmer reached virtually ALL communication the communities, • ‘early adopters’ and something extension ‘innovators’ learned services and NGOs from other ‘innovators’ could never do even if they didn’t know • The stations were them already trusted by the • Trust built; they spoke rural audience or else the same language they wouldn’t listen 34 34Learn More www.farmradio.org info@farmradio.org @farmradio
  35. Prese David Mowbray Contact: dmowbray@farmradio.org nter: Why does other radio not work? • Farm radio in Africa has • Many farm broadcasts been largely top-down are not • ‘innovators’ want to – In the vernacular ‘discover’ and try things language of farm families and use themselves unfamiliar technical • Early adopters want to terms hear from their peers in – targeted to or tailored their social network for women farmers 35 35Learn More www.farmradio.org info@farmradio.org @farmradio
  36. Prese David Mowbray Contact: dmowbray@farmradio.org nter: Next steps • We are now doing a follow-up survey to see if adoption spread, if early adopters continued. • We are looking to scale out our own innovative methodology This is no longer an experiment 36 36Learn More www.farmradio.org info@farmradio.org @farmradio
  37. Prese David Mowbray Contact: dmowbray@farmradio.org nter: Contact me, I’m friendly… Thanks! 37 37Learn More www.farmradio.org info@farmradio.org @farmradio

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