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Cost-benefit analysis of CSA Practices utilization in the Guinea savannah
and Forest agro-ecological zones of Ghana: Impli...
• 1.1. Background
• Climate change pose a major threat to development globally.
• Situation in Sub-Saharan Africa it is co...
• 1.2. Objectives of the Study
• The main objective of the study is to conduct case study on
the utilisation of the most p...
Findings: CSA Technologies and Practices Utilization Levels in Guinea Savannah and Forest Agro-ecological Zones
District R...
2
85
90
10
8
5
0 00
5
45
100
50
35
0
25
15
0
20
5
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Lawra Jirapa Nandom Lawra Jirapa Nandom Lawra Jira...
80
70
75
20
15
10
0
15 15
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Lawra Jirapa Nandom Lawra Jirapa Nandom Lawra Jirapa Nandom
Men Wom...
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Offinso
South
Antwima
Nwabiagya
Afigya
Kwabre
Offinso
South
Antwima
Nwabiagya
Afigya
Kwabre
Offinso
...
Men Offinso South, 40
Men Antwima Nwabiagya, 20
Women Offinso South, 50
Women Antwima Nwabiagya,
70
Youth Offinso South, 1...
0.92
0.39
0.61
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
Lawra Jirapa Nandom Offinso South Atwima Nwabiagya Afigya Kwabre
Cost-Benefit R...
Agro-Ecological zone Key challenges Proposed local-level policy recommendations by farmers
Guinea Savannah • Cross border ...
Conclusion:
• All the most highly ranked CSA technologies and practices
were commonly applied at the small-scale farming l...
Key Lessons
• Case study add to existing literature that Climate change
is location specific hence actions must also be lo...
Thank you
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Cost benefit analysis of csa practices utilization in the guinea savannah and forest agro-ecological zones of ghana- implications for csa investment and scalability at subnational level

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3rd Africa Climate Smart Agriculture Alliance Forum
Presentation given by Ansah Vincent Botchway, CSIR-ARi, Ghana

Published in: Environment
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Cost benefit analysis of csa practices utilization in the guinea savannah and forest agro-ecological zones of ghana- implications for csa investment and scalability at subnational level

  1. 1. Cost-benefit analysis of CSA Practices utilization in the Guinea savannah and Forest agro-ecological zones of Ghana: Implications for CSA investment and scalability at subnational level. PRESENTER: Ansah Vincent Botchway1 Collaborative Scientists: Od um Sam Kingsley1, Naaminong Karbo1, Delali Nutsukpo2 Essegbey George3, Henry Degraft Acquah4, Dadzie Ndzebah Samuel4, Partey Samuel5 and Zougmore Robert5 1CSIR-Animal Research Institute, 2 Department of Agriculture, Greater Accra Region, 3CSIR-Science Technology Policy Research Institute, 4Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Cape Coast, 5 ICRISAT CCAFS West Africa, Mali
  2. 2. • 1.1. Background • Climate change pose a major threat to development globally. • Situation in Sub-Saharan Africa it is compounded by their weak economies and high dependence on agriculture as a major driver of economic growth and development. • Ghana is equally threatened because agriculture continues to play vital role in its socio-economic development (employment, income, food and inputs). • Ghana has since 2010 undertaken several initiatives such as the development of • A National Climate Change Policy (NCCP) and associated implementation strategy document developed to achieve a climate-smart and sustainable socio-economic growth and development. • Ghana has embraced the drive for Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA). • So has developed Climate-Smart Agriculture Action Plan developed to operationalize the agriculture sector of the NCCP. • The Ghana Science-Policy Dialogue Platform on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) established with funding support from CCAFS West Africa • The Platform in attempt to make available empirical and evidence-based information on CSA, conducted this case study and profiled CSA technologies and practices from forest and Guinea Savannah agro-ecological zones to support agro-ecosystem action plans for effective policy-investment decision-making.
  3. 3. • 1.2. Objectives of the Study • The main objective of the study is to conduct case study on the utilisation of the most prevalent climate smart agriculture (CSA) technologies and practices in the Guinea Savannah and Forest Agro- Ecological zones in Ghana. This is to generate evidence-based information at the sub-national level for policy dialogue and decision making towards agricultural planning and investments in Ghana. Focusing on the case studies of the most prevalent CSA technologies and practices, The study specifically: • Profiled the CSA technologies and practices utilization levels in the practicing communities • Estimate the costs and benefits of the application of the CSA technologies and practices in the study area • Assess the contribution of the CSA technologies and practices to livelihood improvement of the users • Identify success factors and challenges associated with the utilization of the CSA technologies and practices in the study area
  4. 4. Findings: CSA Technologies and Practices Utilization Levels in Guinea Savannah and Forest Agro-ecological Zones District Ranking of CSA Technologies using CSA profiling manual (Sam et.al 2015) criteria Nandom (49): “Community-led bushfire control>Crop-livestock integration>Mixed cropping>Agroforestry>Organic fertilizer>Crop rotation Jirapa (34): “Crop-livestock integration>Chemical fertilizer>Mixed cropping >Crop rotation>Crop diversification>Conservation Agriculture (Stone lining and bunding, Ridging contouring)>Minimum tillage” Lawra (32) : “Crop-livestock integration>Community-led bushfire control> Farmer-managed Natural Regeneration>Conservation Agriculture (Stone lining and bunding, Ridging contouring)>Composting>Crop rotation>Supplementary feeding for livestock”. Offinso South (12): “Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM)>Use of manure>No tillage>Intercropping>Use of improve varieties/breeds>Crop intensification>Cover cropping” Antwima Nwabiagya (12): “Slashing without burning>Use of manure>Intercropping>Crop intensification>Use of improve varieties/breeds>Conservation Agriculture>Improved housing>No tillage>Use of crop residues/AIB’s>Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM)” Afigya Kwabre (10): “Slashing without burning>Intercropping>Use of improve varieties/breeds>No tillage > Use of manure > Intercropping > Zero grazing > Improved housing>Trees on farms (eg. Cocoa)>Crop intensification” NB: Crop-livestock integration and Crop rotation were commonly used in the three districts of Guinea Savannah and use of manure, intercropping and the use of improve varieties/breeds were commonly practiced districts in the Forest Zone.
  5. 5. 2 85 90 10 8 5 0 00 5 45 100 50 35 0 25 15 0 20 5 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Lawra Jirapa Nandom Lawra Jirapa Nandom Lawra Jirapa Nandom Lawra Jirapa Nandom Backyard Small Medium Large DISTRICT LEVEL CSA SCALE OF APPLICATION IN THE GUINEA SAVANNAH AGRO ZONE Crop-livestock integration Community-led bushfire control Farmer-managed natural regeneration Conservation agriculture Composting Crop rotation Chemical fertilizer Mixed cropping Crop diversification Stone lining and bunding Agroforestry Organic fertilizer Backyard use of CSA practices dominates in Nandom where use of organic fertilizer dominates Small scale use of CSA practices dominates in Lawra where Crop Rotation is highly practiced Medium to Large scale use of CSA practices dominates in Jirapa where crop rotation is high in medium scale and crop rotation is high in large scale use
  6. 6. 80 70 75 20 15 10 0 15 15 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Lawra Jirapa Nandom Lawra Jirapa Nandom Lawra Jirapa Nandom Men Women Youth GENDER CSA UTILZATION IN GUINEA SAVANNAH AGRO ECOLOGICAL ZONE (%) Crop-livestock integration Community-led bushfire control Farmer-managed natural regeneration Conservation agriculture Composting Crop rotation Chemical fertilizer Mixed cropping Crop diversification Stone lining and bunding Agroforestry Organic fertilizer Women dominate in conservation agriculture in Lawra, mixed cropping in Jirapa & Nandom Unlike women, youth in Nandom owns land by inheritance but Youth CSA utilization were low. Youth dominated the women in the use of agro forestry and crop rotation in Nandom. Men dominate in crop rotation, chemical fertilizer, CLI etc.
  7. 7. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Offinso South Antwima Nwabiagya Afigya Kwabre Offinso South Antwima Nwabiagya Afigya Kwabre Offinso South Antwima Nwabiagya Afigya Kwabre Offinso South Antwima Nwabiagya Afigya Kwabre Backyard Small Medium Large DISTRICT LEVEL CSA SCALE OF APPLICATION IN THE FOREST AGROECOLOGICAL ZONE Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) Use of manure No tillage Intercropping Use of improve varieties/breeds Slashing without burning Crop intensification
  8. 8. Men Offinso South, 40 Men Antwima Nwabiagya, 20 Women Offinso South, 50 Women Antwima Nwabiagya, 70 Youth Offinso South, 10Youth Antwima Nwabiagya, 10 Men Antwima Nwabiagya, 30 Men Afigya Kwabre, 80 Women Antwima Nwabiagya, 60 Women Afigya Kwabre, 10 Youth Antwima Nwabiagya, 10Youth Afigya Kwabre, 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Offinso South Antwima Nwabiagya Afigya Kwabre Offinso South Antwima Nwabiagya Afigya Kwabre Offinso South Antwima Nwabiagya Afigya Kwabre Men Women Youth GENDER CSA UTILZATION IN FOREST AGRO ECOLOGICAL ZONE (%) Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) Use of manure No tillage Intercropping Use of improve varieties/breeds Slashing without burning Crop intensification
  9. 9. 0.92 0.39 0.61 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 Lawra Jirapa Nandom Offinso South Atwima Nwabiagya Afigya Kwabre Cost-Benefit Ratios of Districts in Guinea Savannah and Forest Agroecological zones of Ghana Crop-livestock integration Community-led bushfire control Farmer-managed natural regeneration Conservation agriculture Composting Crop rotation Chemical fertilizer Mixed cropping Crop diversification Stone lining and bunding Agroforestry Organic fertilizer Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) Use of manure No tillage Intercropping Use of improve varieties CBR was relatively high for composting in Lawra, largely used in small scale, high cost observed labor and tools, CLI next highest benefits locked in unsale livestock Positive variance observed for rest of practices with positive ROI
  10. 10. Agro-Ecological zone Key challenges Proposed local-level policy recommendations by farmers Guinea Savannah • Cross border fires from the neighbourhood, • Inadequate farmlands, • initial capital investment, • Inadequate know-how. • Develop and enforce by-laws on bushfire and tree felling; • Budget to support community-based fight bushfire and deforestation; • Regulate fertilizer prices and proliferation of inputs dealers; • Enforce environmental safety policies and laws; • MoFA AEAs should educate farmers on the proper use of the technologies; • Ensure availability of improved varieties at affordable prices; • Need for community level action to line up stones on affected areas for the benefit of the communities; • Capacity building and trainings Forest • Inadequate rainfall, • Rising cost of inputs, • Perpetual land tenure issues, • Increase in harmful pest attack, the need to always buy improved varieties/breeds, • Labour intensive; • Host of disease pests and dangerous reptiles • Subsidy on farm inputs; • Review land tenure issues; • Education on improved livestock and manure management; • Strict by-law on bush burning; • Education on appropriate planting period, distance and harvesting, • Supply improved varieties to farmers, • MoFA agricultural extension to provide education and useful services and Establishment of demonstration fields Farmers Challenges and Policy recommendations from Farmers to promote CSA technologies and practices
  11. 11. Conclusion: • All the most highly ranked CSA technologies and practices were commonly applied at the small-scale farming level and that smallholder farmers largely utilised them. • The applications of the CSA technologies and practices in the districts are generally gender-neutral indicating that men, women and the youth have freedom to use but women were mostly constraint by strength and money for implementation. • In all cases, there were marked positive variance between the revenues generated when a technology or practice is used and the revenues generated when technology or practice is not used through the “with” and “without” approaches. • All things held constant, farmers in the forest agro-ecological zone of Ghana using CSA technologies and practices are better of in terms of revenue generation than otherwise. • The application of each of the most highly ranked CSA technologies and practices generated positive net revenues with the corresponding costs-to-benefits less than 1 showing gains in returns on investment, hence viable investments. • Utilization of CSA practices by Youth was very low in all districts, therefore Youth CSA utilization and empowerment fund in agriculture is important
  12. 12. Key Lessons • Case study add to existing literature that Climate change is location specific hence actions must also be location specific. All size fit all approach wont help drawing lessons from the fact that the case study observed: • Geographical variations in the type, number of CSA Practices and technologies utilisation • Each district has its own CSA practices priority, more CSA Practices profiled as one move to more drier agro- ecological zones in Ghana. • CSA practices priority varies across agroecological zones and district • Scale of application for each practice varies for zones and district • Gender and CSA practices utilization levels varied considerably per agroecological zone and district. • Cost–benefit analysis reveals varied levels of returns on investment per practice. • As result CSA Investment Plan development for any country to support agro-ecosystem should take into consideration empirical and evidence-based information generated at subnational level
  13. 13. Thank you

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