A Vision for Climate Smart Agriculture Bruce Campbell, DirectorCGIAR Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS)
Outline1. What is CSA?2. Mitigation options3. Adaptation options4. Which way forward for CSA?
Food security EcologicalAdaptation footprintGrand Challenges of the 21st Century
Ocean Safe Role of acidification Nitrogen operatingAgriculture cycle space Climate change Phosphorous cycle Current Biodiversity status loss Global freshwater use Change in land Rockström et al. (2009); use Bennett et al. (in prep.)
GHG CO2-eq tonne Food 25 per capita Security 20 15 10 5 0 US MalawiAdaptation Ecological footprint Climate-Smart Agriculture
Agriculture and Rural Development Day 2011• Positive on CSA: national governments, regional organisations, regional farmer’s organisations• Informal feedback: More clarity needed on CSA
A multitude of trade-offs……..• Across sub-sectors (e.g. residues to soils or livestock?)• Across spatial scales (e.g. more productive agriculture can result in forest clearance)• Different kinds of households (e.g. some risk insurance exclude female-headed households)• Short-term vs. long term benefits (e.g. livestock risk insurance can promote land degradation)
CSA will differ significantly… Impact of climate change on child malnutrition Costs of adaptation Indirect emissions Direct emissions
Where to invest? • Agronomy • Nutrient management Cropland • Tillage/residue management management • Water management Grazing land • Rice management management Land cover change • Agro-forestry • Set-aside, land use changeManagement of organic Manure- GHG soils biosolid reduction management Restoration of Bioeenergydegraded lands Livestock management
Five areas for investment1. Sustainable intensification & forest governance2. Sustainable land management (SLM) practices3. Alternate wetting and drying systems in irrigated rice4. Improved nitrogen use efficiency5. Increased intensity of ruminant production in Africa to reduce GHG++ per unit of product
Food SecurityAdaptation Ecological footprint“Climate smart means landscape and policy smart”
Alternate-Wetting- and-Drying (AWD) 30% water 25-50% GHG Yield not compromised
Adaptive capacity TechnologyIncome & assets Infrastructure Knowledge & Governance Access skills & to institutions information Social capital
Key adaptation strategiesIncremental adaptation to progressive climate change• Closing the yield gaps• Raising the bar – breeding for 2030sClimate risk management• Technologies (e.g. flood-resistant varieties)• Institutions (e.g. index-based insurance)• Climate information systems (e.g. seasonal forecasts)Transformative adaptation• Changing production systems• Changing livelihood portfolios
Mali farmer climate advisories• Climate information to farmers for decision making• National Met Service, WMO, ACMAD• Forecasts provided for three‐days, ten‐days, and seasonal (inc. crop health...)• Major increases in yields for participating farmers• Lessons learning and scaling up across Sahel?
EA Regional Learning partnership• Information exchange, capacity strengthening, building consensus around issues and priorities• National and regional • Regional economic agencies community• Research providers • Advisory services• =• NGOs & policy think tanks • Farmer organisations
Activities• Common messages to UNFCCC COP17• Communities of practice – Synergies across diverse projects – Carbon markets for agriculture
Transformative adaptation Relocation of grape production or wineries to cooler regions Shifts to other crops DiversificationParks et al CSIRO
CSA, in summary:• Takes into account: food security, adaptation and ecological footprint• foremost about development itself and address smallholder concerns• Crucial to deal with trade-offs• Context matters: CSA differs widely• Development & ecological footprint → green economy
What is needed?• Analytics and tools – choices, options, investments• What kinds of knowledge products are needed to advance action – especially at farmer, district and national levels? – but also for coherent messaging and dialogue?
More analytics on resource efficiency? E.g. Tomatoes$ return per X water use X Cotton X X X X X X X Maize Soybean X Rice X X X X X X Water use per output Grains use much more water than fruits/vegetables and yield lower economic returns Lele et al. (2011)