A Vision for Climate Smart              Agriculture                 Bruce Campbell, DirectorCGIAR Program on Climate Chang...
Outline1.   What is CSA?2.   Mitigation options3.   Adaptation options4.   Which way forward for CSA?
Food             security                        EcologicalAdaptation               footprintGrand Challenges of the 21st ...
Ocean                          Safe Role of        acidification      Nitrogen    operatingAgriculture                    ...
GHG CO2-eq tonne Food                 25                              per capita Security             20                  ...
Agriculture and Rural Development             Day 2011•   Positive on CSA: national governments,    regional organisations...
A multitude of trade-offs……..• Across sub-sectors (e.g. residues to soils or  livestock?)• Across spatial scales (e.g. mor...
CSA will differ significantly… Impact of climate change on child malnutrition                                       Costs ...
2) Mitigation   options
Where to invest?                                             •   Agronomy                                             •   ...
Five areas for investment1. Sustainable intensification &   forest governance2. Sustainable land management   (SLM) practi...
Food SecurityAdaptation             Ecological                         footprint“Climate smart means landscape        and ...
Alternate-Wetting-    and-Drying      (AWD)                           30% water                           25-50% GHG      ...
3) Adaptationoptions
Adaptive capacity                  TechnologyIncome & assets                    Infrastructure                  Knowledge ...
Key adaptation strategiesIncremental adaptation to progressive climate change• Closing the yield gaps• Raising the bar – ...
Mali farmer climate advisories• Climate information to farmers for decision  making• National Met Service, WMO, ACMAD• For...
EA Regional Learning         partnership• Information exchange, capacity strengthening, building  consensus around issues ...
Activities• Common messages  to UNFCCC COP17• Communities of  practice – Synergies across   diverse projects – Carbon mark...
Transformative adaptation             Relocation of grape              production or wineries to              cooler regi...
Coffee areas  shrink (in Nicaragua)
4) Which way forward for CSA?
CSA, in summary:• Takes into account: food security, adaptation and  ecological footprint• foremost about development itse...
What is needed?• Analytics and tools – choices, options,  investments• What kinds of knowledge products are  needed to adv...
More analytics on resource efficiency?   E.g.                     Tomatoes$ return per     X water use       X            ...
Integrated decision support             tools? Example:Options        Food       Adaptation Environmental               se...
Questions• What kinds of knowledge products are  needed to maintain momentum?• Is it time to give more formalisation to th...
Climate-Smart Agriculture  Bruce Campbell, CCAFS
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Climate-Smart Agriculture Bruce Campbell, CCAFS

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Climate-Smart Agriculture Bruce Campbell, CCAFS

  1. 1. A Vision for Climate Smart Agriculture Bruce Campbell, DirectorCGIAR Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS)
  2. 2. Outline1. What is CSA?2. Mitigation options3. Adaptation options4. Which way forward for CSA?
  3. 3. Food security EcologicalAdaptation footprintGrand Challenges of the 21st Century
  4. 4. Ocean Safe Role of acidification Nitrogen operatingAgriculture cycle space Climate change Phosphorous cycle Current Biodiversity status loss Global freshwater use Change in land Rockström et al. (2009); use Bennett et al. (in prep.)
  5. 5. GHG CO2-eq tonne Food 25 per capita Security 20 15 10 5 0 US MalawiAdaptation Ecological footprint Climate-Smart Agriculture
  6. 6. Agriculture and Rural Development Day 2011• Positive on CSA: national governments, regional organisations, regional farmer’s organisations• Informal feedback: More clarity needed on CSA
  7. 7. A multitude of trade-offs……..• Across sub-sectors (e.g. residues to soils or livestock?)• Across spatial scales (e.g. more productive agriculture can result in forest clearance)• Different kinds of households (e.g. some risk insurance exclude female-headed households)• Short-term vs. long term benefits (e.g. livestock risk insurance can promote land degradation)
  8. 8. CSA will differ significantly… Impact of climate change on child malnutrition Costs of adaptation Indirect emissions Direct emissions
  9. 9. 2) Mitigation options
  10. 10. Where to invest? • Agronomy • Nutrient management Cropland • Tillage/residue management management • Water management Grazing land • Rice management management Land cover change • Agro-forestry • Set-aside, land use changeManagement of organic Manure- GHG soils biosolid reduction management Restoration of Bioeenergydegraded lands Livestock management
  11. 11. Five areas for investment1. Sustainable intensification & forest governance2. Sustainable land management (SLM) practices3. Alternate wetting and drying systems in irrigated rice4. Improved nitrogen use efficiency5. Increased intensity of ruminant production in Africa to reduce GHG++ per unit of product
  12. 12. Food SecurityAdaptation Ecological footprint“Climate smart means landscape and policy smart”
  13. 13. Alternate-Wetting- and-Drying (AWD) 30% water 25-50% GHG Yield not compromised
  14. 14. 3) Adaptationoptions
  15. 15. Adaptive capacity TechnologyIncome & assets Infrastructure Knowledge & Governance Access skills & to institutions information Social capital
  16. 16. Key adaptation strategiesIncremental adaptation to progressive climate change• Closing the yield gaps• Raising the bar – breeding for 2030sClimate risk management• Technologies (e.g. flood-resistant varieties)• Institutions (e.g. index-based insurance)• Climate information systems (e.g. seasonal forecasts)Transformative adaptation• Changing production systems• Changing livelihood portfolios
  17. 17. Mali farmer climate advisories• Climate information to farmers for decision making• National Met Service, WMO, ACMAD• Forecasts provided for three‐days, ten‐days, and seasonal (inc. crop health...)• Major increases in yields for participating farmers• Lessons learning and scaling up across Sahel?
  18. 18. EA Regional Learning partnership• Information exchange, capacity strengthening, building consensus around issues and priorities• National and regional • Regional economic agencies community• Research providers • Advisory services• =• NGOs & policy think tanks • Farmer organisations
  19. 19. Activities• Common messages to UNFCCC COP17• Communities of practice – Synergies across diverse projects – Carbon markets for agriculture
  20. 20. Transformative adaptation  Relocation of grape production or wineries to cooler regions  Shifts to other crops  DiversificationParks et al CSIRO
  21. 21. Coffee areas shrink (in Nicaragua)
  22. 22. 4) Which way forward for CSA?
  23. 23. CSA, in summary:• Takes into account: food security, adaptation and ecological footprint• foremost about development itself and address smallholder concerns• Crucial to deal with trade-offs• Context matters: CSA differs widely• Development & ecological footprint → green economy
  24. 24. What is needed?• Analytics and tools – choices, options, investments• What kinds of knowledge products are needed to advance action – especially at farmer, district and national levels? – but also for coherent messaging and dialogue?
  25. 25. More analytics on resource efficiency? E.g. Tomatoes$ return per X water use X Cotton X X X X X X X Maize Soybean X Rice X X X X X X Water use per output Grains use much more water than fruits/vegetables and yield lower economic returns Lele et al. (2011)
  26. 26. Integrated decision support tools? Example:Options Food Adaptation Environmental security impactCrop xCrop zLivestockAgroforestry
  27. 27. Questions• What kinds of knowledge products are needed to maintain momentum?• Is it time to give more formalisation to the partnership between the CGIAR and WB?

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