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CCAFS Seminar on Science to Deliver Adaptation and Mitigation in East African Agriculture

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The Science Seminar shared knowledge and discussed successes and lessons learned on adaptation and mitigation in East Africa

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CCAFS Seminar on Science to Deliver Adaptation and Mitigation in East African Agriculture

  1. 1. Science to Deliver Adaptation and Mitigation in East African Agriculture CCAFS Science Seminar JVC Auditorium, ILRI Nairobi – Kenya 2:00 -5:30 p.m.
  2. 2. Laura Cramer and Philip Thornton Vision for CCAFS Phase II
  3. 3. Overview • Highlights of CCAFS Phase I • CCAFS Phase II  Outcomes and targets  Impact pathway and theory of change  Flagships and Gender and Social Inclusion  Regions and Regional Program Leaders  Cross-scale activities • East Africa portfolio
  4. 4. Highlights of CCAFS Phase I (2011 – 2016) • Scaling up tailored seasonal advisories (Senegal, Colombia, Honduras) • Development of the Climate Smart Village concept • Scenario building and use in policy processes (outcomes in 9 countries) • Index insurance for crops, livestock and floods trialed in 6 countries • Use of science to inform climate investments worth > $350 million • Engagement in UNFCCC processes and partnership with the World Business Council for Sustainable Development • Gender and social inclusion toolbox adopted by partners • Inclusion of CGIAR research in IPCC 2014 report • Open access climate data and methods for estimating smallholder emissions used by thousands of researchers
  5. 5. CCAFS Phase II overview • CGIAR System Level Outcomes:  Reducing poverty: target is to have 11 million farm households adopt CSA by 2022; assist 9 million people (50% of whom are women) to exit poverty  Improving food and nutrition security for health: remove nutritional deficiencies of one or more essential micronutrients in 6 million people (50% of whom are women) by 2022  Improving natural resource systems and ecosystem services: contribute to reduce ag-related GHG emissions by 160 Mt CO2e per year by 2022 comparted to business-as-usual scenario
  6. 6. CCAFS Phase II Impact Pathway and Theory of Change • To be achieved through strong partnerships:  Regional bodies (AU, NEPAD, ECOWAS, COMESA, APAN, CAC, ECLAC, IICA)  National agricultural research services and meteorological services  International and local NGOs  Other CRPs (PIM, A4NH, FTA, etc.)  Universities (Wageningen University and Research Centre, Lancaster University, etc.)  Global bodies (UNFCCC, FAO, WFP, etc.) • Capacity building • Gender and social inclusion • Monitoring, evaluating, and learning
  7. 7. CCAFS Flagships • FP1: Priorities and Policies for CSA, Philip Thornton • FP2: Climate Smart Technologies and Practices, Andy Jarvis • FP3: Low Emissions Development, Lini Wollenberg • FP4: Climate Services and Safety Nets, Jim Hansen • Cross-cutting: Gender and Social Inclusion, Sophia Huyer
  8. 8. CCAFS Regions and RPLs Latin America Ana Maria Loboguerrero West Africa Robert Zougmore South Asia Pramod Aggarwal East Africa Dawit Solomon Southeast Asia Leocadio Sebastian
  9. 9. CCAFS Works Across Scales
  10. 10. Communication, Gender and Social Inclusion, Capacity Strengthening Center led RPL led Bilateral Develop Index insurance for drought-prone maize and bean-based farming systems in East & West Africa (CIMMYT - 2018) Mitigation in livestock and LED pathways + SAMPLES coordination (ILRI/CIFOR – 2018) Influencing and linking policies and institutions from national to local level for the development and adoption of climate-resilient food systems (IITA/CIAT – 2017) Partnerships for scaling climate- smart agriculture (P4S-CSA) (CIAT/ICRAF – 2018) East Africa NAMA for Dairy Development with UNIQUE (ICRAF - 2018) Design of Kenya County Climate Risk Profiles (MoA) - CIAT Climate Smart Agriculture Country Profiles Africa – CIAT (WB – US) Surveillance of Climate-smart Agriculture for Nutrition – ICRAF Tanzania Climate Smart Agriculture Reference/Learning Sites (ICRAF-USDA) Strengthening Capacity in Tanzania to Implement Agriculture Climate Resilience Actions (USDA) - ICRAF Feasibility of using mobile phones to monitor nutrition outcomes (WFP – Italy) – ICRAF Enhancing climate-resilience of Agricultural Livelihoods (USAID) Policy Action for Sustainable Intensification of Ugandan Cropping Systems (Netherlands Embassy - Uganda) Climate smart coffee and cocoa: from theory to practice (BMZ – Germany) Greening Livestock: Incentive-based interventions for reducing the climate impact of livestock in East Africa - ILRI (IFAD) In situ assessment of GHG emissions from two livestock systems in East Africa (BMZ) Climate Services for Agriculture: Empowering Farmers to Manage Risk and Adapt to a Changing Climate in Rwanda – CIAT (USAID) Local Governance and Adapting to Climate Change in Sub-Saharan Africa (LGACC) - ILRI Climate Services for Africa – ILRI (USAID) Analyzing the science-policy- practice interface in climate change adaptation in EA & WA (ILRI – 2017) Bringing CSA practices to scale: assessing their contributions to narrow nutrient and yield gaps - (WUR - 2019) Production and use of biochar, compost and lime as component of ISFM and sustainable land use (Austria) – IITA N2Africa - Putting nitrogen fixation to work for smallholder farmers in Africa (BMGF – US) – IITA Mitigating Drought Impacts in Southern Mozambique through Resilient, Nutritious Sweet potato (USAID) – CIP Regional and national engagement, synthesis and strategic research CCAFS East Africa Portfolio, 2017-2018
  11. 11. • Scenario-based policy reviews • Tanzania National Environment Policy • Ugandan Agriculture Sector Strategic Plan • Climate change mainstreaming guidelines for the agricultural sector, Uganda • Generating more evidence to feed policy decision making • Multi-stakeholder platforms • Joint learning • Adaptation planning • Engaging policy decision makers • Engagement with policy decision-makers Ampaire et al. (2017) From Scenarios to Policy Planning in East Africa
  12. 12. Science to Deliver Adaptation and Mitigation in East African Agriculture CCAFS Science Seminar JVC Auditorium, ILRI Nairobi – Kenya 2:00 -5:30 p.m.
  13. 13. Incubating a Promising Financial Solution for the Drylands: Toward Sustainable Index-Based Livestock Insurance (IBLI) for Pastoralists CCAFS Science Seminar, May 30th ILRI Nairobi Science to Deliver Adaptation and Mitigation in East African Agriculture
  14. 14. Insurance as a Development Tool • Decades of evidence exist that risk • Makes people poor by reducing incomes & destroying assets: and, • Keeps people poor , by discouraging investment & distorting patterns of asset accumulation • The arid pastoral regions of Northern Kenya, and Southern Ethiopia are an archetype of risk & coping • Development impacts of risk reduction technologies (insurance) should therefore be significant. • Index-based livestock insurance (IBLI) – an innovative insurance product leveraging satellite data to estimate livestock losses – first deployed as a pilot in 2010.
  15. 15. Insurance as a Development Tool THE IBLI R&D CHALLENGE Can index-based insurance make a significant and sustainable contribution to the challenge of helping pastoralists manage the considerable risk of drought-related livestock losses they face?
  16. 16. IBLI Program Summary • IBLI R&D agenda, supported by a range of donors, has been comprehensive and contributed to catalyzing a nascent but growing industry. • Program launched in 2008 to offer a timely, sustainable, safety net against catastrophic drought shocks on pastoralists. • 2011 drought triggered contracts in all covered areas serving as an important proof- of-concept indicator. • 2012 initial pilot launch in Southern Ethiopia. 2013 IBLI began to scale in Kenya beyond pilot site in Marsabit • Rigorous IBLI impact assessments have revealed considerable socioeconomic and behavioral benefits drawing policy and development partner support. • Government of Kenya has committed to scaling up IBLI under the Kenya Livestock Insurance Program (KLIP). • March 2017, KLIP/IBLI paid out over Ksh225 million to 12,500 households representing close to 90% of insured households. 25% of these received the maximum payment possible for short rains failure. • Work remains to ensure efficient and sustainable large scale coverage
  17. 17. 1. Precise contract design: 2. Evidence of value and Impact: 3. Establish informed effective demand, 4. Low cost, efficient, delivery mechanisms 5. Policy and institutional infrastructure. Components of a Sustainable Index-Insurance Program
  18. 18. IBLI Theory of Change
  19. 19. Precise Contract Design • Objective (Initially): To insure against drought- related livestock mortality. Asset Replacement. • Index: Predicted average livestock mortality. • Contract Evolution: From Asset Replacement to Asset Protection • Index: Seasonal Forage Availability For references refer to https://ibli.ilri.org/publications/ DATA - Livestock mortality - Remotely sensed NDVI Respon se Functio n Predicte d Livesto ck Mortalit y
  20. 20. Evidence of Impact and Value Methods: • Panel survey for impact assessment • Monitoring Evaluation and Learning surveys and interactions Evidence: • Wide range of positive household impacts • Quantification of risk-coverage precision of contracts • Indication of value-for-money for public expenditure For references refer to https://ibli.ilri.org/publications/
  21. 21. Establish Informed Effective Demand • Capacity Development, Training, Extension and Marketing  Critical for ensuring impact and scaling efficiently  Unlocks a rich and important new research agenda Level 1: Knowledge and tools for government and insurance industry policy makersLevel 2: Knowledge, skills and job aids for IBLI/KLIP sales agents and promoters Level 3: Awareness raising for potential clients
  22. 22. Low-cost, Efficient Delivery • Need to solve for the cost of service provision in the drylands • Application of digital technological solutions  will be critical to reducing costs and going to scale
  23. 23. Policy and Institutional Structure • Sustainable, large-scale index insurance program requires a clear and well articulated policy structure • No example of unsubsidized private market for index insurance in developing countries. Globally only 7% of transaction volume is purely private. • Experience and evidence suggests that for programs to go to scale they need to build on strong, well-coordinated public and private sectors • In Kenya we serve together with the World Bank as invited technical and policy advisors for KLIP • What are the key roles for each sector?
  24. 24. Moving Toward Sustainable Scale Africa Classification for IBLI “Relevance Zones” (Mills et al., 2017 ILRI Brief) • Growing body of evidence continues to highlight the socioeconomic and risk-management value of index insurance programs, and the logic of public support. • IBLI experience has made a contribution to this evidence, and to identifying some of the barriers to scale and trying to solve for them • Going to scale will require careful research and development efforts to further unlock the barriers, and an alignment of policy and technological forces. • INVESTMENTS NEEDED IN: • Additional evidence on household and poverty impacts of IBLI, integration with other complementary interventions targeting poverty alleviation, risk- management and graduation to prosperity (cash transfers, graduation etc) • Improvements in contract design and validation and alignment with other related index-based products/programs (ARC, scalable HSNP etc) • Development of internationally recognized product quality metrics • Development of digital platforms and data infrastructure for cost-efficient product and information delivery, capacity development, impact assessment and product design
  25. 25. IBLI Policy and Academic Workshop – July 2015 It Takes a Village
  26. 26. This presentation is licensed for use under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence. better lives through livestock ilri.org ILRI thanks all donors and organizations who globally supported its work through their contributions to the CGIAR system Thank you! For more information on IBLI, visit https://ibli.ilri.org/
  27. 27. Science to Deliver Adaptation and Mitigation in East African Agriculture CCAFS Science Seminar JVC Auditorium, ILRI Nairobi – Kenya 2:00 -5:30 p.m.
  28. 28. Gender Power in the Kenyan Dairy Sector Katie Tavenner, PhD Post-Doctoral Fellow – Gender Research CCAFS Science Seminar JVC Auditorium, ILRI Nairobi campus May 30, 2017
  29. 29. Why focus on gender power?  Dairy is a male dominated sector  Increased commercialization (re: adoption of intensification practices) tends to reinforce men’s dominance in value chains  Gender dynamics mediate farmers’ ability to effectively participate in and benefit from low emissions dairy development  Gender analysis reveals how intrahousehold dynamics, social institutions, and value chains work together to influence on-farm practices and market engagement
  30. 30. Gender Power Issue I: Milk Marketing  Intensification of dairy production in Kenya is being achieved through formal milk market participation  Market participation is embedded in local gender norms, that affect how men and women engage in milk marketing  Localized notions of masculine household headship influence farmer decisions over whether/where to sell morning and evening milk  Example: Direct payments to women for formal evening milk marketing may not actually address whether women can control that income!
  31. 31. Gender Power Issue II: Labor Dynamics  Daily dairy labor is predominantly carried out by women – Need for trainings to be targeted towards women….but also to go beyond quotas to understand intrahousehold labor and decision making dynamics  Additional labor from intensification of production likely to be borne by women – Need for labor alleviating technologies OnAfricanDairyPortal
  32. 32. Gender Power Issue III: Intersectionality  Intersectional axes create different gendered capabilities for farmers to engage in and benefit from dairy intensification  Farmer’s engagement in dairying is patterned not only by whether they identify as male or female, but by how their gender ‘intersects’ with their ethnicity, culture, marital status, age, race, wealth status, and religious affiliation  Example: Single women may not need to deal with ‘contested headship’ issues (they can own cattle, make decisions about resources), but they may lack the financial support or time to intensify dairy production
  33. 33. Gender Power Issue IV: Gender Equity  Gender equity defined as, “fairness in participation and benefit from development” - is a cultural construct  While development practitioners often have specific notions of what constitutes equity, men and women smallholders do too  A sole focus on “getting the indicators right” obscures the complexity of how gender power operates dynamically and relationally within and across households, institutions, and value chains
  34. 34. Questions/Comments? Contact Details Katie Tavenner | Postdoctoral Fellow - Gender International Livestock Research Institute |ilri.org Box 30709 -00100, Nairobi, Kenya E-mail: K.Tavenner@cgiar.org
  35. 35. Science to Deliver Adaptation and Mitigation in East African Agriculture CCAFS Science Seminar JVC Auditorium, ILRI Nairobi – Kenya 2:00 -5:30 p.m.
  36. 36. Mazingira Centre: Improving Estimates of Greenhouse Gas Fluxes from Livestock in Sub-Saharan Africa David E. Pelster, John Goopy, Lutz Merbold, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl and the Mazingira Team International Livestock Research Center (ILRI), Nairobi, Kenya CCAFS Science Seminar, 30 May, 2017
  37. 37. Mazingira? Swahili for “environment” Multi-disciplinary approach:  Soils, air, water  Natural and crop/livestock systems  Point of entry – improving productivity of land - sustainably
  38. 38. AFOLU and GHG emissions Approx. 70% of emissions related to livestock production Contribution of AFOLU GHG emissions by country category Manure applied to soils Enteric fermentation Manure left on pasture Manure management Burning - savanna Synthetic fertilizer Rice cultivation Crop residues Cultivation org. soil Burning – crop res. GHG-emissions by sector FAO, Tubiello et al. 2014 2
  39. 39. Richards et al. 2016 Scientific Reports Why we need empirical studies Prediction error for smallholder cropping systems Models likely using incorrect emission factors Hickman et al. 2014 Why are the emission factors incorrect? • Limited dataset •Models use emission factors from other regions •These other regions have different climate / soils / management / animal breeds, etc
  40. 40. Why is this important? • National inventories for IPCC calculated using (most likely) incorrect data (TIER 1 approach), • Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMA) depend on correct understanding of current emissions and projected effects of the mitigation actions, • (Intended) Nationally Determined Contribution ((I)NDCs) can only be tackled with profound understanding of the systems , • Currently we have no accurate estimates of either of these, nor do we know the direction of change with changes to land management • Environmental in-situ data for African continent remains scarce -> bias not-only in earth system models 14
  41. 41. What have we found so far: GHG emissions from smallholder farms in east Africa •Baseline N2O emissions from agricultural soils were also low when compared to other regions • Soils are often depleted of both C and N and likely require inputs of both to improve fertility • (Pelster et al. 2017, BG) Background N2O Emissions (Kg N2O-N ha-1) Median Mean Study 1* 0.18 0.28 Global average (Kim et al. 2012) 0.70 1.52
  42. 42. However… • Moving from Tier 1 to Tier 2, without changing the methane conversion factors increases emission estimates • Likely the same for N2O (Owino et al. in prep) Herd component Tier 1 EF (kg CH4 head-1 yr- 1) Total Nandi manure management Tier 1 emissions (Gg CH4 yr-1) Tier 2 EF (kg CH4 head-1 yr-1) Total Nandi manure management Tier 2 emissions (Gg CH4 yr-1) Adult female (pregnant) 1 0.024 9.54 0.233 Adult female (not) 1 0.057 6.00 0.342 Adult male 1 0.023 7.86 0.178 Young dairy female 1 0.103 5.90 0.610 Young dairy male 1 0.013 4.47 0.058 Total 0.220 1.422
  43. 43. Results: Study 2 GHG emissions from east African cattle excreta CH4emissionfactors(gCH4-Cyr-1 250kganimal-1) IPCC Tier 1 valueD1 = Basal diet D2 = Daily supplementation (1X)D3 = Bi-daily supplementation (2X) • Emission factors for manure were much lower than in many other regions • Likely related to the poor quality of the livestock feed • (Pelster et al. 2016, JEQ) IPCC Tier 1 value N2Oemissionfactors(%appliedN lostasN2O-N)
  44. 44. Why is this important? Livestock and enteric fermentation • African farmers are amongst the least efficient livestock producers in terms of GHG emissions intensities • Rising populations and affluence lead to greater demand for animal-sourced protein. • Baseline and mitigation calculations to date have been done exclusively through the use of models • Cheaper and faster than measurements, but has (a lot) of limitations • It is a capital mistake to theorize before one has data. - Sherlock Holmes • We need to model emissions, but we need DATA to parameterize the models 14
  45. 45. Enteric CH4: What should we measure? (I) It’s all mostly about the food:  Intake and digestibility 70-80% of variability in enteric GHGEs Very difficult to measure intake in smallholder situations Key assumptions about estimating intake violated (esp. ad lib intake)  The “next best” is to estimate intake from energy expenditure  Thus, we measure LW, ∆LW, milk production and locomotion in ruminants on smallholder farms, then apply appropriate algorithms to estimate intake. Then we can estimate enteric CH4 emissions.
  46. 46. Enteric CH4: What have we done? • Identified (60-120) representative farms in 3 localities (Nyando, Nandi, Bomet) and in the process of adding 2 more (Tanzania) • Track (measure) all ruminant livestock on those farms for 1 yr • Estimate yields from pasture and crops • We use this data to estimate Methane Production Rate, Emission Factors
  47. 47. Enteric CH4: What we’ve found so far: • Emissions factors (up to) 40% less than Tier1 (default) estimates Females Males Calves Live weight (kg) Annual Emissions (CH4 kg/yr) Live weight (kg) Annual Emissions (CH4 kg/yr) Live weight (kg) Annual Emissions (CH4 kg/yr) Highlands 262.6 28.0 231.5 36.8 87.5 20.4 Lowlands 175.9 23.4 169.5 31.6 62.7 15.9 Slopes 209.7 24.1 205.8 35.5 74.6 17.2 Mean 208.7 24.6 198.0 34.4 73.4 17.3 Mean live weight (kg) and Emission Factors (CH4 kg/animal/annum) for three classes of cattle in the three topographic regions of the Nyando basin, Kenya
  48. 48. What does this mean? • More work is required to validate (other areas), BUT • Current estimates may greatly overestimate EFs in local cattle • Potentially invalidate mitigation practices because baselines are too high
  49. 49. Some recent publications Manure management to improve soil structure and food security and mitigate greenhouse gas emission Ndambi, A., Pelster, D.E., Butterbach-Bahl, K. Greenhouse gas fluxes in agricultural soils of Kenya and Tanzania Rosenstock, T.S., Mpanda, M., Pelster, D.E., Butterbach-Bahl, K., Rufino, M.C., Thiong’o, M., Mutuo, P., Abwanda, S., Rioux, J., Kimaro, A., Neufeldt, H. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from cattle excreta on an East African grassland Pelster, D.E., Gisore, B., Goopy, J.P., Korir, D., Koske, J.K., Rufino, Mariana C., Butterbach- Bahl, K. Supplementation with Calliandra calothyrsus improves nitrogen retention in cattle fed low- protein diets Korir, D., Goopy, J.P., Gachuiri, C., Butterbach-Bahl, K. Long-term assessment of soil and water conservation measures (Fanya-juu terraces) on soil organic matter in South Eastern Kenya Saiz, G., Wandera, F.M., Pelster, D.E., Ngetich, W., Okalebo, J.R., Rufino, M.C., Butterbach-Bahl, K. Simple and robust algorithms to estimate live weight in African smallholder cattle. Goopy. JP, Pelster, D.E., Lukuyu, M., Marshall,K., Onyango, A Smallholder Dairy Farmer Training Manual JP Goopy, J. Kagai (eds). Groundwater recharge rates and surface runoff response to land use and land cover changes Owuor, S.O., Butterbach-Bahl, K., Guzha, A.C., Rufino, M.C., Pelster, D.E., Diaz- Pinés, E., Breuer, L.
  50. 50. This presentation is licensed for use under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence. better lives through livestock ilri.org ILRI thanks all donors and organizations who globally supported its work through their contributions to the CGIAR system For more information contact: dpelster@cgiar.org Thank You
  51. 51. analytical capacity • C/N analyzer, sampling gear, nutrition analysis • Livestock respiration chambers 3 x small, 3 x large, 1 x mobile + Picarro • Eddy covariance system (NH3, N2O, CO2, CH4), Aerodyne QCLAS • Automatic chambers 18 x chambers + Picarro • Manual chambers and GC lab 6 x GC (N2O, CH4, CO2, (SF6)) • Manure/soil/plant analysis • Nutritional lab (crude protein, fiber) • Water analysis NH4 +, NO3 -, DOC/DON, water Mazingira Centre: Our Kit 11
  52. 52. Questions? Mazingira team in December 2016: f.l.t.r. Jesse Owino , Hillary Rotich, George Wanyama Ibrahim Wanyam Butterbach-Bahl, Stanley Mwangi, John Goopy, Alice Onyango, David Pelster, Yuhao Zhu, Andrew Mbithi, Victoria C Asep Ali, Stephen Okoth, Daniel Korir, Lutz Merbold, Phyllis Ndungu Jesse Kagai, Showman Gwatibaya, Shade Aki Kapiti cattle in the back mazingira.ilri.org 15
  53. 53. Science to Deliver Adaptation and Mitigation in East African Agriculture CCAFS Science Seminar JVC Auditorium, ILRI Nairobi – Kenya 2:00 -5:30 p.m.
  54. 54. DEVELOPING THE KENYA DAIRY NAMA CCAFS Science Seminar Charles Odhong' 30/05/2017
  55. 55. OVERVIEW 1. Kenya Dairy NAMA Development Process 2. Dairy NAMA Concept 3. Theory of Change 4. Lessons learnt 5. Missing links
  56. 56. 56 1. Kenya Dairy NAMA Development Process • Establishment of NAMA development partnerships (SDL, KDB), including roles and responsibilities and the set-up of a Multi-Stakeholder Platform • First Multi-Stakeholder Platform meeting and regional consultations in Central and Eastern regions took place in September and November 2015 • NAMA training organized for the State Department of Livestock and Agriculture and Fisheries, and Kenya Dairy Board • Intensive consultation with dairy processors, fodder producers & biogas companies • Action research with dairy and biogas companies to identify the business case for gender inclusive business practices •
  57. 57. 57 1. Kenya Dairy NAMA Development Process (Cont...) • In-depth studies:  Review on financing mechanisms within the dairy sector  Systematic review on management practices and their impact on milk yields among smallholder farmers  Cost-benefits analysis of commercial fodder production models  Assessment of energy efficiency abatement potential  Dairy productivity mitigation potential assessment (with CCAC project)  Assessment of existing dairy M&E systems as basis for MRV in the NAMA • Feasibility study on four mitigation opportunities within the dairy value chain and development of initial NAMA concept • Second Multi-Stakeholder Platform meeting, June 2016
  58. 58. 58 3. Fodder supply4. Waste 2b. On-farm productivity 2a. On-farm productivity 1. Energy efficiency Processors , coops TA credit Banks Coop s farmers Fodder suppliersBiogas TA credit Banks credit Banks TA Credit TA Biogas companies, banks Processors TA Dairy service providers 2. Dairy NAMA Concept
  59. 59. 59 Impact Outcom es Outputs 1.1 Increased adoption by men and women dairy farmers of improved on-farm practices 1.2 Increased commercial production and marketing of fodder Kenya’s dairy sector is transformed to a low-emission development pathway, while improving the livelihoods of male and female dairy producers 1. Increased dairy productivity through private sector investment in gender- inclusive advisory services and fodder input supply 2. 1 Dairy cooperatives and processors increase energy efficiency 2.2 Men and women adopt biogas technologies on dairy farms 3.1 Project monitoring and national MRV systems linked 3.2 Best practices are captured and shared among dairy sector stakeholders 3.3 Dairy sector stakeholders coordinate their support 2. Reduced energy consumption from non- renewable sources throughout the dairy value chain 3. Strengthened institutional and stakeholders’ capacities for scaling-up low-emission dairy development Activities 1.1.1 Processor-led provision of gender-inclusive advisory services to their suppliers 1.1.2 Financial assistance for on-farm investments by farmers and cooperatives 1.2.1 Technical assistance to commercial fodder producers and fodder producer associations 1.2.2 Financial assistance for investments in commercial fodder production and marketing 2.1.1 TA to support cooperatives and processors for energy audits and investment proposal preparation 2.1.2 Financial assistance for investments in energy efficiency and renewable energy 2.2.1 TA to biogas companies for development of business operations 2.2.2 Financial assistance for adoption of biogas by farmers 3.1.1 Capacity building for project participants and national organizations in MRV 3.2.1 Monitoring and evaluation of project outputs, outcomes & impacts 3.2.2 Share good practices and lessons for adoption and replication 3.3.1 Convene stakeholder coordination meetings 3. Theory of Change
  60. 60. 60 4. Lessons Learnt • Strong country ownership is critical from the start, then stakeholder engagement is important to ensure broad-based buy- in • Building on past and ongoing interventions provides a strong guide to feasibility and financial viability • To attract climate finance, there must be a clear commercial driver of long-term sustainability; close engagement with the private sector grounds planned interventions in industry trends • Financing mechanisms must be tailored to different actors’ needs
  61. 61. 61 5. Missing links • There is much more research on effectiveness of mitigation options than there is on equity dimensions • Research on adaptation implications of mitigation strategies is limited • Research on effectiveness of delivery mechanisms (e.g. dairy extension methods, gender-inclusive approaches) is limited • Further work is needed to linking the NAMA MRV system to national MRV systems (e.g. GHG inventory, ‘MRV+’)
  62. 62. Schnewlinstr. 10 79098 Freiburg, Germany Tel: +49 761 208534 – 0 unique@unique-landuse.de www.unique-landuse.de © UNIQUE forestry and land use GmbH Current Status The concept note has been submitted to the GCF. IFAD is keen to take the concept note to the proposal development phase Partners;
  63. 63. Science to Deliver Adaptation and Mitigation in East African Agriculture CCAFS Science Seminar JVC Auditorium, ILRI Nairobi – Kenya 2:00 -5:30 p.m.
  64. 64. Science and Partnership for Impact Bruce Campbell, Program Director
  65. 65. Where we are Where we must be • Development $$$  not National Science Foundation $$$ • Not in the real world…. • Private sector key • Funder’s national interests • Outcome reporting More: • Effective • Outcome-orientated • Focused • Different
  66. 66. Engagement Evidence Outreach • Join in, listen & navigate • Demand driven, targeted & tailored • Credibility • Opportunism & flexibility • Communication • Capacity building Three- thirds approach An outcome-orientated approach
  67. 67. • Improved index insurance products for > 1 million farmers in India
  68. 68. www.ccafs.cgiar.org @bcampbell_CGIAR
  69. 69. Science to Deliver Adaptation and Mitigation in East African Agriculture CCAFS Science Seminar JVC Auditorium, ILRI Nairobi – Kenya 2:00 -5:30 p.m.
  70. 70. Partnerships for Scaling Climate-Smart Agriculture Evan Girvetz Todd Rosenstock And team e.girvetz@cgiar.org 30 May 2017 Nairobi, Kenya
  71. 71. Africa CSA Alliance
  72. 72. Engagement CapacityStrengthening CSA Investment Portfolios Prioritizing Interventions Practices, Programs and Policies Value for Money & Trade-offs Targets, Vulnerability & Impacts, Readiness Stocktaking for CSA Action Situation Analysis Target Setting, Climate Risks & Enabling Conditions Program Implementation Design, Development & Deployment Taking CSA to Scale Knowledge into Action Evidence Based Results Framework Learning from Experience Monitoring and Evaluation Across Scales and Systems CSA-Plan
  73. 73. CSA-Plan Vulnerability & Impacts + Readiness Stocktaking for CSA Action Situation Analysis Target Setting, Climate Risks & Enabling Conditions CSA Country Profiles https://ccafs.cgiar.org/publications/csa-country-profiles 15 Profiles Developed Across Africa, Asia and Latin America 15+ additional currently being developed globally
  74. 74. Kenya County Climate Risk Profiles: Key Risks and Adaptation Options Identified Across Value Chains Developed to support the World Bank Kenya Climate Smart Agriculture Project ($250 million) Climate Risk Profiles being developed for 31 Kenyan counties through strong engagement Provides a platform for CSA dialogue, engagement and capacity building at the county level
  75. 75. CSA Investment Portfolios Prioritizing Interventions Practices, Programs and Policies Trade-offs & Value for Money Vulnerability & Impacts + Readiness Stocktaking for CSA Action Situation Analysis Risks and Enabling Conditions CSA-Plan FA O Trade- offs among aspects of CSA Synergie s between aspects of CSA
  76. 76. • Scope – region, commodity • CSA indicator selection • long list of CSA practices Results •Short list of priority practices and programs •Stakeholder selection via workshops Results Ranked short list based on economic analysis Results •CSA investment portfolios •Identified opportunities and constraints Results Prioritizing Interventions Community organizations Governmental decision- makers (national, local) NGOs Research Developmen t partners
  77. 77. CSA Compendium: Synergies and trade-offs with CSA ed nd ? Rel- gro- st n on oil hysical le- e on of eb of ndica- pri- , to oduc- in a stud- t me- umber ude. comes (see Rosenstock et al. 2015 for description of sta- tistical approach). We intentionally only select studies that measured both outcomes, because the impact of man- agement practices depends on location and thus it is spu- rious to compare results of studies between locations in different biophysical or social contexts. −1.0 −0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 −1.0 −0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 Productivity SOC Productivity (Effect size) Resilience(Effectsize) 11% 15% 56% SynergiesTradeoffs Tradeoffs 19% +Yield -women’s labor +Yield +soil C-Net returns +soil C Rosenstocketal.
  78. 78. CSA Investment Portfolios Targeting & Prioritizing Practices, Programs and Policies Trade-offs & Value for Money Vulnerability & Impacts + Readiness Stocktaking for CSA Action Situation Analysis Risks and Enabling Conditions Program Implementation Design & Implementation Guidelines Taking CSA to Scale Knowledge into Action • CSA Program Development • Implementation Guides • Business models • Incentive schemes CSA-Plan
  79. 79. Program Design & Implementation: Innovative Finance and Business Models for Scaling CSA Climate- Smart Agriculture Intervention s Farmer Field Business Schools Village Saving and Loan Association s Climate Resilience Gender Equity Social Capital Farmers Organizatio ns & Groups Input Supplie rs Resilience, Nutrition, Poverty and Equity Outcomes Markets & Household Consumpti on
  80. 80. CSA Investment Portfolios Targeting & Prioritizing Practices, Programs and Policies Trade-offs & Value for Money Vulnerability & Impacts + Readiness Stocktaking for CSA Action Situation Analysis Risks and Enabling Conditions Program Implementation Design & Implementation Guidelines Taking CSA to Scale Knowledge into Action Evidence Based Results Framework Learning from Experience Monitoring and Evaluation Across Scales and Systems CSA-Plan
  81. 81. Big Data Opportunities in Agriculture http://bigdata.cgiar.org
  82. 82. 82 • High-level engagement in 12 Countries across east, west and southern Africa • Deeper sub-national engagement in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia • In discussions with World Bank in Cameroon and Government of Nigeria to conduct climate profiling work Partnerships for Scaling CSA: Reach in Africa
  83. 83. Lessons Learned • Engagement: Just show up! Partnerships and early engagement with key stakeholders are critical: the process is as important as the final product • Evidence: Decision-makers want evidence, and they see the CGIAR and CCAFS as key technical and knowledge partners • Outreach: Communications and capacity building are critical to translating high-level frameworks and guidelines into on-the-ground impact Engagement + Evidence + Outreach = Impact
  84. 84. e.girvetz@cgiar.org Evan Girvetz Todd Rosenstock 24 April 2017 Galway, Ireland
  85. 85. Science to Deliver Adaptation and Mitigation in East African Agriculture CCAFS Science Seminar JVC Auditorium, ILRI Nairobi – Kenya 2:00 -5:30 p.m.
  86. 86. Policy engagement: the role of multistakeholder platforms
  87. 87. The policy challenge Limited capacity & capacity building Insufficient attention to gender Lack evidence that informs policy Limited stakeholder inclusion Harmonization & coordination challenges At formulation Policies focus on short term climate impacts Non-functional structures Limited awareness of policies Political interference Limited enforcement Cross-cutting issues not priority Limited capacity to interpret At implementation
  88. 88. Gaps spread across scales Formulation National District Community  Lack of synergy between the diverse sectors • Lack of gender & social differentiation & practical strategies to address gender  District inadequately included in formulation • Engagement with gender restricted to quota system  Locals excluded in policy formulation • Female participation further reduced by limited information & technical skills Implementation  Lack of implementation structures across levels  Weak enforcement of laws and regulations  Climate change and gender issues treated as cross- cutting issues  NRM/Climate change issues not part of performance evaluation  Limited capacity to interpret and implement policies  Limited access to policy documents  Locals not aware of policies  Lack of ownership, limited compliance  Political interference
  89. 89. • Policy- gender analysis • Policy actor networks • CSA trade- offs • Scenario guided policy development Knowledge creation • Co-learning • Information exchange • Development of tools + strategies • Engagement actions Collective learning + engagement • Enhanced human capacity for CCA • Better-informed investment decisions for CCA • Inclusive policy development and implementation • Collective CCA effort Outcomes Influence and link policies and institutions from national to local level for the development and adoption of climate-resilient and gender-responsive food systems in Uganda and Tanzania
  90. 90. Influencing change in policies Tanzanian NEP ASSP Uganda Climate change mainstreaming guidelines, MAAIF 2 District local governments Tanzania 4 District Local governments Uganda • Partnership with MAAIF? • Non-state actors in LA demanded own review; • Capacity building for non- state actors • Partnership with VPO, MALF • Govt technical planning committees mandated • Non-state actors/LA members participated • Local adaptation planning at district level • Integrated climate change in five year district development plans • Influencing investment priorities • Partnership with MAAIF • National & district LAs participated in consultations & validation Scaling • Kilolo scaled alliance to lower levels • LA scaled out to Kilosa by NGO on LA Achievements related to learning alliances • Validation of research findings • Districts and communities converge to learn, prioritize and plan climate action • Build linkages between national and international partners who meet at or work through learning alliances • Targeted engagement e.g. Uganda Parliament; Tanzania water Commission
  91. 91. Lessons being learnt • Motivation for sustainability? • The need for an interested champion to keep momentum • Link to stakeholder needs • Value chain showing positive signs • Tangible benefits: policy initiatives must link with initiatives that deliver e.g. technologies
  92. 92. Science to Deliver Adaptation and Mitigation in East African Agriculture CCAFS Science Seminar JVC Auditorium, ILRI Nairobi – Kenya 2:00 -5:30 p.m.
  93. 93. • Documents emerging stories of success of CSA technologies and practices in East Africa • Selected from a portfolio of CSA interventions that are positively changing lives of smallholder farmers, with potential for scaling up The booklet
  94. 94. CSVs in East Africa • Six sites in four countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania -Borana (ET) -Wote and Nyando (KE) -Hoima and Rakai (UG) -Lushoto (TZ) • Climate-Smart Villages are clusters of villages or landscapes that focus on climate change hotspots around the world • Piloting of the interventions began in 2012.
  95. 95. Climate–Smart Villages components
  96. 96. Themes highlighted
  97. 97. CGIAR Partners
  98. 98. National and local partners
  99. 99. Science to Deliver Adaptation and Mitigation in East African Agriculture CCAFS Science Seminar JVC Auditorium, ILRI Nairobi – Kenya 2:00 -5:30 p.m.

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