Overview presentation of CCAFS Capacity Building Strategy for West Africa


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Robert Zougmore, CCAFS West Africa RPL, presenting CCAFS Capacity Building Strategy for WA at WASCAL Advisory Boards Meeting.

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Overview presentation of CCAFS Capacity Building Strategy for West Africa

  1. 1. WASCAL MRP/GRP Advisory Boards Meeting November 20 - 21, 2012, Elmina, Ghana Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security Program (CCAFS):overview and capacity building strategy for WA Robert Zougmoré West Africa Program Leader CCAFS
  2. 2. 2 • 3/21/11 Outline 1. The global and African challenges 2. Program design 3. Themes 4. Capacity building in CCAFS 5. Collaboration with WASCAL
  3. 3. Commission on Sustainable Agriculture and Climate Change • “Business as usual in our globally interconnected food system will not bring us food security and environmental sustainability” • “The window of opportunity to avert a humanitarian, environmental and climate crisis is rapidly closing”Beddington et al. (2012) Science 335: 289-290 www.ccafs.cgiar.org/commission
  4. 4. Challenge 1:Food security
  5. 5. A billion people go hungryAnother billion suffer nutrient deficiencies Another billion over-consume In 15 years time there will be another billion people to feed
  6. 6. With current trajectories of populations & diets100% (+/- 11%) more food by 2050 This has major implications for land cover change Tilman et al 2011 Proc. National Academy Science
  7. 7. Challenge 2: Adaptation to CC
  8. 8. Signs of Hope:Rehabilitation, Prevention
  9. 9. IPCC PROJECTIONS FOR AFRICA• CO2 enrichment• Temperature increase of 1.5 to 4 ⁰C in this century• Fewer colder days and nights• Frequent hot days and nights• Arid areas will become drier, humid areas wetter• Increase in droughts and floods• Sea level rise• High levels of desertification and soil salinization in some countries
  10. 10. Length of growing season is likely to decline.. Length of growing period (%) >20% loss To 2090, taking 18 5-20% loss climate models No change 5-20% gain Four degree rise >20% gainThornton et al. (2010) Proc. National Academy Science
  11. 11. Crop suitability will fall in many areas% change -95 to -31 -30 to -11 50 crops, to 2050 -10 to -1 0 1 to 29 30 to 47 48 to 98 Andrew Jarvis, CIAT/CCAFS
  12. 12. Historical impacts on wheat (1980-2008) Changes in growing season temperature China India US % Yield impact Russia for wheat France GlobalLobell et al (2011)
  13. 13. • Greater frequency of extreme events• More severe extreme events
  14. 14. Climate change will add greatly to price increases… % price increase 2010-2050 Maize Rice WheatNelson et al., 2010 IFPRI
  15. 15. Impact of weather shocks Oxfam (2012) based on D. Willenbockel (2012)
  16. 16. Environmental challenge
  17. 17. 19-29% global GHGs from food systemsVermeulen et al. 2012Annual Review of Environment and Resources (in press)
  18. 18. 18 • 3/21/11Program Design
  19. 19. 19 • 3/21/11 CCAFS: the partnership The CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) is a strategic collaboration between the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) and the Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP).
  20. 20. 20 • 3/21/11CCAFS in WA:working inpartnership Regional organizations (e.g. CORAF, FARA, ASARECA) Continental initiatives (e.g. CAADP, ECOWAP,, PAU) Meteorological, development, capacity organizations (e.g. AGRHYMET, NMO) National research & extension State sectoral institutions NGOs, Private sector, FOs
  21. 21. 21 • 3/21/11 CCAFS objectives 1. Identify and develop pro-poor adaptation and mitigation practices, technologies and policies for agriculture and food systems. 2. Support the inclusion of agricultural issues in climate change policies, and of climate issues in agricultural policies, at all levels.
  22. 22. 22 • 3/21/11 The CCAFS Framework Adapting Agriculture to Climate Variability and Change Technologies, practices, partnerships and policies for: Improved 1.Adaptation to Progressive Climate Environmental Improved Change Health Rural 2.Adaptation through Managing Climate Livelihoods Risk Improved 3.Pro-poor Climate Change Mitigation Food Security 4. Integration for Decision Making •Linking Knowledge with Action •Assembling Data and Tools for Analysis and Planning •Refining Frameworks for Policy Analysis Enhanced adaptive capacity in agricultural, natural resource management, and food systems
  23. 23. 23 • 3/21/11 THE VISION To adapt farming systems, we need to: • Close the production gap by effectively Progressive using current technologies, practices and Adaptation policies • Increase the bar: develop new ways to increase food production potential • Enable policies and institutions, from the farm to national level
  24. 24. 24 • 3/21/11 Adaptation to progressive climate change · 1 Objective One: Adapted farming systems via integrated technologies, practices, and policies Objective Two: Breeding strategies to address abiotic and biotic stresses induced by future climates Objective Three: Identification, conservation, and deployment of species and genetic diversity
  25. 25. 25 • 3/21/11 Adaptation to progressive climate change · 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 Adapted Breeding strategies Species and farming systems for climate stresses genetic diversity• Holistic testing of • Climate-proofed • Knowledge for betterfarming options global and national use of germplasm for(benchmark sites) breeding strategies adaptation• Agricultural • Regional fora to • On-farm use ofknowledge transfer discuss and set diversity to adapt• Analysis of prioritiesenabling policies and • Policies of access forinstit. mechanisms benefit sharing
  26. 26. 26 • 3/21/11Farm of the FutureApproach Strengthen the adaptive capacity of farmers and AIS to climate change using climate analogue tools and adaptation practices (learning opportunities)
  27. 27. 27 • 3/21/11 Multi-site agricultural trial database(agtrial.org) New data • Over 3,000 trials • 16 crops • 20 countries • > 15 international and national institutions
  28. 28. 28 • 3/21/11 THE VISION • Climate-related risk impedes development, leading to chronic poverty and dependency • Actions taken now can reduce Risk vulnerability in the short term and enhance resilience Management in the long term •Improving current climate risk management will reduce obstacles to making future structural adaptations.
  29. 29. 29 • 3/21/11 Managing Climate Risk · 2 Objective One: Building resilient livelihoods (Farm level) Objective Two: Food delivery, trade, and crisis response (Food system level) Objective Three: Enhanced climate information and services
  30. 30. 30 • 3/21/11 Managing Climate Risk · 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 Building resilient Food delivery, trade, Climate information livelihoods and crisis response and services• Designed • Manage price info.diversification volatility via trade • Historical data• Index-based risk and storage reconstruction • Downscaled, tailoredtransfer • Improved early seasonal forecast predictions• Anticipatory warning systems • Monitor and forecast crops,mgmt, aided by rangelands, pests & diseasesforecasts and • Coordin. platform servicescommunications • Food safety nets • Institutional arrangements• Participatory • Post-crisis • Communication processesaction research recovery • Capacity bldg for providers
  31. 31. Scaling up climate31 • 3/21/11information services- Strengthen the capacity of NHMS in forecasting- Tailor climate information to the needs of farmers- 42 participants (NHMS) staff trained to produce seasonal forecasts (ECOWAS countries, Agrhymet, ACMAD)− Forecast bulletin produced disseminated- 140 participants (33 women) (farmers, extension, NGOs staff) trained (Ségou, Yatenga, Kaffrine) to understanding seasonal forecast information & make management decisions.- Evaluation of the seasonal forecast results with the farmers
  32. 32. 32 • 3/21/11 VISION Pro-poor Short-term: Identifying options feasible Mitigation for smallholder mitigation and trade-offs with other outcomes Long-term: Addressing conflict between achieving food security and agricultural mitigation
  33. 33. 33 • 3/21/11 Pro-poor climate change mitigation · 3 Objective One: Identify low-carbon agricultural development pathways Objective Two: Develop incentives and institutional arrangements Objective Three: Develop on-farm technological options for mitigation and research landscape implications
  34. 34. 34 • 3/21/11 Pro-poor climate change mitigation · 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 Low-carbon Incentives and On-farmdevelopment pathways instit. arrangements mitigation options• Evaluate lowest • Test feasibility of • Test technologicalcarbon footprints for: carbon market for feasibility offood production, smallholders, smallholder mitigationadaptation, energy focusing on best bets on farmsproduction, sustainable (SE Asia, Latin Amer) • Dvlpt cost-effective,intensification, povertyalleviation • Assess potential simple, integrated• Assess impacts of non-market options MRV.current policies • Assess impacts on • Assess impacts of• Develop coherent marginalized groups all GHGs throughvision to guide agric and women their lifecycles.dvlpt
  35. 35. Need to developing a shared protocol for 35 • 3/21/11 GHG emissions Scale and boundaries Landscapes Knowledge generation & Farming systems information exchange Linking to Plot yields and foodManagement security& activity data Measurement equipmentMixed production systems ICRAF, ILRI, IRRI, ICRISAT, FAO, University of Hohenheim, Global Research Alliance for Agricultural Greenhouse Gases CP
  36. 36. 36 • 3/21/11 VISION •Provide an analytical and diagnostic framework, grounded in the policy context • Synthesize lessons learned •Effectively engage with rural stakeholders and decision makers •Communicate likely effects of specific policies and interventions Integration •Build partners’ capacity For Decision-Making
  37. 37. 37 • 3/21/11 T2: Risk Management T3: Pro-poor Mitigation Rural Environment Livelihoods Food Security
  38. 38. 38 • 3/21/11 Objective One: Linking knowledge with action Objective Two: Data and tools for analysis and planning Objective Three: Refining frameworks for policy analysis
  39. 39. 39 • 3/21/11 Integration for Decision Making · 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 Linking knowledge Data and tools for Frameworks for policy with action analysis and planning analysis• Regional scenarios • Integrated • Assess CC impacts at• Vulnerability assessment framework, global & regional levelsassessments toolkits, and databases on: producers, to assess CC impacts consumers, natural• Approaches to resources, anddecision making • Baselines, data international transactionsinformed by good generation & collation, scoping studies, and • Analyze likely effects ofscience tool development scientific adap. and mitig.• Approaches to options, national policiesbenefit vulnerable, • Socially-differentiated • Analyze differentialdisadvantaged decision aids and info impacts of options ongroups for different different social groups stakeholders
  40. 40. Regional socio-economic scenarios for West AfricaWhat has been done? Policy driver• Four scenarios have been created Short-term Long-term with actors from governments, private priorities priorities sector, civil society, academia and Governments A slow and Dominant Force Actors facilitate short- State media including support from regional term gain: cash, painful transition to sustainable bodies ECOWAS and CORAF carbon and states calories Ungoverned, quick A struggle Non-state• Scenarios explore food security, and chaotic between civil Actors environmental change and livelihoods development; society and the dealing with crises private sector that under different contexts of state, at the expense of is ultimately private sector and civil society power investment productive and policy priorities • Scenarios inform global agricultural economic models (IMPACT, GLOBIOM) linked to climate models
  41. 41. Focusing on women farmers• Climate-related shocks have had much greater negative impacts on women than men• Women have less access to climate information than men• Women crucial for food security – when have more power, access and earnings, then more income allocated to food, child nutrition and education
  42. 42. The CGIAR Research CentersWhere is the research being done? >> At our 15 CG centers and ~70 regional offices Lead center - CIAT
  43. 43. Place-based field research work Indo- Gangetic Plains: There is risk of heatWest stress, meltingAfrica: East glaciers, and sea levelExtreme rainfall variability Africa: rise; the intensity andimpedes precipitation Climate change will probability of extremepredictions, but the Sahel likely intensify events will likelywill likely experience surface and increase.shorter growing periods. groundwater stress. Regional director:Regional director: Regional director: Pramod AggarwalRobert Zougmoré James Kinyangi
  44. 44. Research userdriven for Science PARTICIPATORY ACTION RESEARCH Objective: Test, adapt and monitor strategic innovations supporting climate-smart agriculture FO/CBO Approach: particular actions, interventions tested and NGOs PRIVATE implemented simultaneously with local partners, researchers CCAFS & development workers (CGIAR cooperating closely NARES + ESSP) RECs (CILSS, ARIs INSAH, UNIVs etc.) PARTNERS CSO
  45. 45. What is Climate Smart Agriculture?Agriculture that sustainably:1. increases productivity2. resilience (adaptation)3. reduces GHG (mitigation)And enhances achievement ofnational food security anddevelopment goals (FAO, 2010)WWW.FAO.ORG/CLIMATECHANGE/CLIMATESMART/EN
  46. 46. Capacity building in CCAFS
  47. 47. Capacity enhancement in CCAFS A Definition People or organizations increasing their own ability to achieve their objectives effectively and efficiently. The CCAFS Vision • Adaptation requires embedded local capacity, not external solutions • CCAFS aims to enhance both (a) research capacities and (b) capacities to link knowledge and action
  48. 48. Capacity enhancement in CCAFS For research partners to generate useful data, tools, and results. Post-grad students, meteorological services, climate and agricultural research institutes, field workers... e.g. CLIFF Climate Food and Farming NetworkFor policy partners to demand anduse data, tools, and results.Governments (policy makers, climatenegotiators), civil society, developmentorganizations, farmers’ organizations, privatesector.e.g. User-driven regional scenarios
  49. 49. Examples of global capacityenhancement work in CCAFSResearchers’ capacity: The Climate Food and Farming Research Network (CLIFF) supports PhD fieldwork & links students to the development of a global GHG protocol for smallholders www.cliff.life.ku.dkResearch users’ capacity: The Food Climate Research Network (FCRN) provides updates on research and practice for practitioners, & a forum for problem-solving www.fcrn.org.uk
  50. 50. CAPACITY BUILDING STRATEGY IN WAEnable stakeholders to effectively using scientific knowledge, tools & methods for informed planning & decision makingFocus on capacity of research (NARS, Universities…) and ability of countries’ negotiators and CSOs, farmers’ organizations, to contribute effectively to debates in the international arena:Short-term capacity building: train people in the skills needed to undertake the research.Long-term capacity building: liaise with other actors who can help develop curricula and provide graduate training (e.g. WASCAL).Working relationships with regional & national actors (e.g. AGRHYMET-INSAH-CILSS) contribute to strengthen their capacity -and that of national partners- to accomplish their mandate of reducing climate risks for improved food security.
  51. 51. CCAFS and WASCAL• Possibilities for masters & PhDs in CCAFS PAR research work (collaboration with Univ.)• Additional research themes of good match for WASCAL-sponsored PhD students (CCAFS TLs)• Access to CCAFS sites• Access to data sets,• Access to CCAFS publications (report series, working papers, etc.)• Access to meetings, national/regional networks• Start–up logistics/contacts/introductions/advice
  52. 52. WASCAL MRP/GRP Advisory Boards Meeting November 20 - 21, 2012, Elmina, Ghanawww.ccafs.org; infoccafswa@cgiar.org