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Cardenas Emissions factors livestock systems Colombia Nov 11 2014


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Presentation at workshop: Reducing the costs of GHG estimates in agriculture to inform low emissions development
November 10-12, 2014
Sponsored by the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)

Published in: Science
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Cardenas Emissions factors livestock systems Colombia Nov 11 2014

  1. 1. DEVELOPING COUNTRY - SPECIFIC EMISSION FACTORS FOR LIVESTOCK SYSTEMS IN COLOMBIA EDGAR ALBERTO CÁRDENAS ROCHA Associate Professor Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnic Na8onal University of Colombia Bogotá Workshop: “Reducing the costs of GHG es7mates in agriculture to inform low emissions development” 10 -­‐ 12 November 2014 -­‐ Rome, Italy
  2. 2. Tundra hAp:// CLIMATE Tropical rainforest Tropical savanna Deser8c Steppe Summer rains Mediterranean Low rainfall Cold snowy forest High mountain Perpetual snow
  3. 3. PASTURES DISTRIBUTION IN THE WORLD Pastures hAp://, Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment at the University of Wisconsin-­‐Madison 2005
  4. 4. CATTLE SYSTEMS IN COLOMBIA Prod. Syst. world 9th posi8on in caAle inventory 24.5 mill. of head Al8tude Temp Soil Fer8lity (%) (masl) °C Beef 30 0 – 1.000 >24 L – M -­‐ H Dual purpose 62 1.000 – 2.000 18 -­‐ 24 Low Dairy 8 2.000 – 3.000 4 -­‐ 16 Medium
  6. 6. hAp://­‐america-­‐greenhouse-­‐gas-­‐emiAers-­‐by-­‐sector_173c
  7. 7. COLOMBIAN AGRICULTURE GHG EMISSIONS SOURCE CH4 N2O CO2 eq. Propor:on (Gg) (%) Enteric fermenta8on 1.585 -­‐ 33.292 51 Manure management 48 0,8 1.252 2 Rice crops 65 -­‐ 1.372 2 Crops soils -­‐ 94(17%) 29.137 45 Savanna burning 3 0 2 0,09 Burning of crops residues 3 0,008 92 0,14 Total 1.704 95 65.206 100 IDEAM 2008
  8. 8. PRODUCT BEEF AND MILK PRODUCTION IN COLOMBIA Year hAp:// CO2 eq/kg 2012 Beef, ton/y 972.866 ¿? Milk, mill. kg/y 7.200 ¿?
  9. 9. FONTAGRO PROYECT COUNTRIES The Research Consor8um “Climate Change and Beef CaAle Produc8on: Quan8fica8on and Mi8ga8on of Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Grazing Beef CaAle”
  10. 10. CLIMATE CHANGE AND BEEF CATTLE PRODUCTION IN SOUTH AMERICAN COUNTRIES (2011 – 2014) INTA Argen8na INIA Chile UNAL Colombia FONTAGRO 2010 Regional Fund for Agriculture MAF-­‐ NZ Global Research Alliance 30% 70% IDIAF Dominican Rep. INIA Uruguay
  11. 11. CLIMATE CHANGE AND BEEF CATTLE PRODUCTION IN SOUTH AMERICAN COUNTRIES Long Term OBJETIVES contribute to the mi8ga8on of climate change caused by GHG emissions (CH4 and NO) from the livestock sector 2General Research reduce the uncertainty in the development of na8onal GHG’s (CH4 and N2O) inventories of the countries within the consor8um and to develop mi8ga8on op8ons adapted to the farming condi8ons of each country
  12. 12. CLIMATE CHANGE AND BEEF CATTLE PRODUCTION IN SOUTH AMERICAN COUNTRIES However!... Ø U8liza8on of Default Emission Factors Important uncertain:es around es:mated emissions Therefore... -­‐ there is an urgent need among the countries of South and Central America to elucidate country specific EFs (CHand NO); 4 2and -­‐ to develop mi8ga8on techniques to reduce GHG emissions from the agricultural sectors
  13. 13. VARIATION ON FORAGE QUALITY BY REGION (DIGETIBILITY, INTAKE) Medium diges:bility Panicum maximum Dichanthium annulatum Echinochloa polystachya Bothriochloa pertusa Low diges:bility Brachiaria humidicola Brachiaria decumbens Axonopus purpusii Higher diges:bility Lolium spp. Pennisetum clandes7num Low diges:bility Melinis minu7flora Paspalum notatum Homolepis aturensis Higher diges:bility Cynodon nlemfuensis Digitaria decumbens Dichanthium aristatum
  14. 14. EQUATION 10.21 CH4 EMISSION FACTORS FOR ENTERIC FERMENTATION FROM A LIVESTOCK CATEGORY E F= Ym 100 GE * *365 EF= emission factor, kg CH4/head/yr GE= gross energy intake, MJ/head/day Ym= methane conversión factor, per cent of gross energy in feed converted to methane The factor 55.65 (MJ/kg CH4) is the energy content of methane 55.65 EMISSION FACTOR EQUATION 10.16 GROSS ENERGY FOR CATTLE/BUFFALO AND SHEEP GE= NEm+ NEl + NEa + NEw + NEp REM + NEg + NEwool REG DE % 100 GE = gross energy, MJ/day NEm = net energy for maintenance, MJ/d NEa = net energy for ac8vity, MJ/d NEl = net energy for lacta8on, MJ/d NEw = net energy for work, MJ/d NEp = net energy for pregnancy, MJ/d REM = ra8o of net energy available in a diet for maintenance to diges8ble energy consumed NEg = net energy for growth, MJ/d NEw = net energy for wool, MJ/d REG = ra8o of net energy avail. for growth in a diet to diges8ble energy consumed DE% = diges8ble energy expressed as a percentage of GE
  15. 15. ¿HOW TO REDUCE COSTS TO MEASURE GHG USING SF6 AND CLOSE STATIC CHAMBERS TECHNIQUES? METHANE Is necessary to measure diges8bility, intake, milk produc8on or liveweigth gains. Only methane data is not enough to es8mate specific EF. -­‐ Measure enteric methane with SF6 tracer is expensive, but is possible to reduce cost collec8ng samples each 10 days from caAle (Gere – Argen8na-­‐NZ). -­‐ Other method to reduce costs is to es8mate CH4 emissions from CH4/CO2 ra8o or voluntary intake under grazing, they are a good indicators to predict methane emissions. NITROUS OXIDE -­‐ Reduce frecuency of sampling through trial.
  16. 16. CONSIDERATIONS -­‐ Colombia needs to es8mate at least 4 EF due to its different ecosystems characterized by differences in the quality of their forages and caAle systems. -­‐ We can use modifica8ons in SF6 and Close Sta8c Chambers to measure to lower costs GHG THANKS !!!