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Breeding foresight workshop: Presentation by CGIAR RTB


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Presentation at a workshop convened by CCAFS Learning Platform 1 in Rome, Italy, on 19-20 February 2019.

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Breeding foresight workshop: Presentation by CGIAR RTB

  1. 1. F e b r u a r y 2 0 1 9 RTB Foresight in Breeding MICHAEL FRIEDMANN • FORESIGHT IN BREEDING, ROME 2019
  2. 2. Banana Plantain Cassava Potato Sweetpotato Yam Other R&T Our crops 300 million small holder farmers , their families and processors depend on RTB crops buffering role in food systems
  3. 3. Steps in climate smart breeding 1. Looking into the future: downscaling climate change models & crop modelling - drivers of yield loss 2. Identifying key traits to respond to drivers and estimating trait level needed to respond to climate change- incorporate into product profiles 3. Medium term: varietal selection for best bet climate smart varieties-with end-user needs and preferences 4. Long term: genomic research and high thru-put phenotyping to incorporate climate responsive traits 5. Developing management options for climate smart varieties 6. Deployment (seed system)
  4. 4. draft product profiles Crop Trait Priority GMO GWAS GS QTL molecular markers Diagnostic Banana/plantain Yield 1 Highlands East & R to black leaf streak, Sigatoka 2 to 3 Central Africa R to Banana bunchy top virus, 3 R to banana weevil 2 R to Fusarium wilt 1 R1 SR4 R to nematodes (various species) 2 R to Xanthomonas wilt 2 Early maturity 2 dwarf types, plant height 1 to 2 plant stature 2 Suckering behavior 2 Drought tolerance 3 Fruit parthenocarpy 1 Table quality (texture, flavor, and color) 1 Mataoke Bunch orientation 1 Bunch compactness 2 High Pro Vit A content 2 Crop Trait Priority G Potato Yield 1 Mid-elevation tropics Table quality (appearance, cooking types, glycoalkaloid content) 1 Earliness 1 High Fe or Zn 3 R to Late blight 1 Drought tolerance 2 R to PVY 1 Heat tolerance 3 Chipping ability 1 R to Bacterial Wilt 3 R to PLRV 3 R to PVX 3 potatobanana
  5. 5. Climate resilience breeding targets Crop Opt. temp (oC) Max temp (o C) drought period breeding banana 25-27/18 31-38 (strong damage and wilting) 2-3 months reach 33 (o C) day temp cassava >20; phtsis 25-35 sprouting ceases >37 bulking stops, but resumes. Grows from 600 to 1000mm bulking to continue under drought; less remobilization of starch when moisture returns- erratic rainfall patterns potato /10-20 night 28/18-20 go over Tmax (21-22o C night), short season 70- 80 d Sweetpotato 25-30/15-20 25-30 (27.2) day temp critical for planting material landraces with high potential yam 25-30 30 26-29 days WUE and NUE linked Raising temperature limits, increased drought tolerance, context-specific, and not enough heat effects on anti- nutritional compounds Extreme weather events- flooding in Rwanda- sweetpotato as security crop 70 – 80 DAYS 10 14 18 22 26 30 34 38 Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar (Midmore, 1992) AirTemperatureºC Max Day Tº Max Night Tº
  6. 6. GWAS for potato yield components under warm long day conditions 5 9 Mihovilovich & Bonierbale, CIP
  7. 7. Sweetpotato screen for heat tolerance Thermographic image: field in summer 2014 - heat stress exposure at maximum storage root bulking Yield of storage roots vs. pencil roots represent an indicator for heat tolerance Considerable genetic variation heat stress tolerance
  8. 8. Climate change: pests and diseases LB severity—current LB severity—2050 Legend Figure 5. Predictions of potato late blight severity in sub-Saharan Africa using a metamodel (source: Sparks et al 2014).
  9. 9. Climate proofing seed systems
  10. 10. RTB Scaling Fund • Design & implementation of scaling strategies for most promising RTB innovations • Semi-competitive • Cross-team collaboration • Complementarities with other funds • Proposals • USD 200 – 500 K • 12 to 24 months Scaling in RTB
  11. 11. Multi-CRP package to address resilience & adaptation of RTB systems to climate change • low cost irrigation -RTB, WLE, CCAFS, PIM • For seed systems, yield gaps, climate resilience • Expand production in sub-Sahel region for cassava, sweetpotato. • Protect banana production iDE Hero Ghana Watering Can