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Whole farm carbon accounting by smallholders 
Lessons from Plan Vivo projects 
Nicholas Berry 
Research Associate – Tropical Land Use Change 
University of Edinburgh
1,047,049 tCO2 
8,576 Smallholders 
28,335 ha
9,645 ha, 2,437 participants, 95,000 tCO2 per annum 
Reforestation 44.7 tC/ha 
Improved fallow 45.7 tC/ha 
Shade coffee 39.0 tC/ha 
Intercropping 99.0 tC/ha 
1,210 ha, 909 participants, 95,000 tCO2 per annum 
Meisopsis woodlots 61.0 tC/ha 
Mixed woodlots 42.0 tC/ha
Whole farm carbon accounting by smallholders 
Opportunities ¦ Challenges ¦ Requirements
Whole farm carbon accounting by smallholders 
Opportunities ¦ Challenges ¦ Requirements 
•Full recognition of mitigation benefits from smallholder activities 
•Recognition of linkages between smallholder activities could enhance mitigation potential 
•Support can be channelled to a broader range of activities
Whole farm carbon accounting by smallholders 
Opportunities ¦ Challenges ¦ Requirements Technical 
•Lack of information regarding mitigation potential 
•Complex quantification for monitoring 
•Lack of technical capacity 
•Validity of simplified approaches Financial 
•Minimal mitigation potential for individual smallholders 
•Additionality 
•High validation and transaction costs
Whole farm carbon accounting by smallholders 
Opportunities ¦ Challenges ¦ Requirements 
•Greater understanding of mitigation potential from changing smallholder practices (more research required?) 
•Flexible approaches to quantification of mitigation that can be adapted to novel systems (standardised approaches?) 
•Full participation of smallholders in project design, implementation and monitoring (simple approaches?) 
•Simple, transparent and verifiable approaches to track mitigation that directly benefit smallholders (activity- and input-based monitoring?) 
•Potential to aggregate projects to spread transaction costs (scheme-based approaches?)
Whole farm carbon accounting by smallholders 
Lessons from Plan Vivo projects 
Acknowledgements 
Wendelin Aubrey, David Burslem, Andy Ingls, Dorothy McIntosh, Alexa Morrison, Elaine Muir, Mark Purdon, Casey Ryan, Richard Tipper 
Photo credits 
CIAT International Center for Tropical Agriculture, Niel Palmer (CIAT), The Plan Vivo Foundation
Climate Smart Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa 
Carbon methodology development 
VACANCY 
Postdoctoral Research Associate 
Feb to Jul 2012 
University of Edinburgh 
Contact: nicholas.berry@ed.ac.uk

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Berry Plan vivo methods oct 2011

  • 1. Whole farm carbon accounting by smallholders Lessons from Plan Vivo projects Nicholas Berry Research Associate – Tropical Land Use Change University of Edinburgh
  • 2. 1,047,049 tCO2 8,576 Smallholders 28,335 ha
  • 3. 9,645 ha, 2,437 participants, 95,000 tCO2 per annum Reforestation 44.7 tC/ha Improved fallow 45.7 tC/ha Shade coffee 39.0 tC/ha Intercropping 99.0 tC/ha 1,210 ha, 909 participants, 95,000 tCO2 per annum Meisopsis woodlots 61.0 tC/ha Mixed woodlots 42.0 tC/ha
  • 4. Whole farm carbon accounting by smallholders Opportunities ¦ Challenges ¦ Requirements
  • 5. Whole farm carbon accounting by smallholders Opportunities ¦ Challenges ¦ Requirements •Full recognition of mitigation benefits from smallholder activities •Recognition of linkages between smallholder activities could enhance mitigation potential •Support can be channelled to a broader range of activities
  • 6. Whole farm carbon accounting by smallholders Opportunities ¦ Challenges ¦ Requirements Technical •Lack of information regarding mitigation potential •Complex quantification for monitoring •Lack of technical capacity •Validity of simplified approaches Financial •Minimal mitigation potential for individual smallholders •Additionality •High validation and transaction costs
  • 7. Whole farm carbon accounting by smallholders Opportunities ¦ Challenges ¦ Requirements •Greater understanding of mitigation potential from changing smallholder practices (more research required?) •Flexible approaches to quantification of mitigation that can be adapted to novel systems (standardised approaches?) •Full participation of smallholders in project design, implementation and monitoring (simple approaches?) •Simple, transparent and verifiable approaches to track mitigation that directly benefit smallholders (activity- and input-based monitoring?) •Potential to aggregate projects to spread transaction costs (scheme-based approaches?)
  • 8. Whole farm carbon accounting by smallholders Lessons from Plan Vivo projects Acknowledgements Wendelin Aubrey, David Burslem, Andy Ingls, Dorothy McIntosh, Alexa Morrison, Elaine Muir, Mark Purdon, Casey Ryan, Richard Tipper Photo credits CIAT International Center for Tropical Agriculture, Niel Palmer (CIAT), The Plan Vivo Foundation
  • 9. Climate Smart Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa Carbon methodology development VACANCY Postdoctoral Research Associate Feb to Jul 2012 University of Edinburgh Contact: nicholas.berry@ed.ac.uk