CCAFS Science Meeting B.3 Patti Kristjanson - Strategic Gender Research in CCAFS
Strategic Gender Research in CCAFS Key CCAFS questions and possible approaches Patti KristjansonCCAFS Research Leader/Senior Scientist, World Agroforestry Center CCAFS Planning Meetings Copenhagen April/May2012
CCAFS Gender Questions*1. What are the implications of gender relations for vulnerability to different levels of exposure to climate stress and for adaptation to progressive climate change at the level of individuals, households and communities? (T1)2. What are the characteristics and causes of gender-differentials in access to and use of climate-related information? (T2)3. What are promising institutional arrangements enabling women as well as men to benefit from incentives for delivering environmental services? (T3)4. What gender-differentiated patterns can be identified in the trade-offs poor men and women make between adaptation and mitigation options for dealing with climate change in agriculture? (cross-cutting)5. How are risks arising from climate change or variability distributed among men and women with different resource endowments and assets? (cross- cutting)* From CCAFS gender strategy
Overarching gender questions re: Climate Smart Agriculture Which climate-smart agricultural practices and interventions (including improved soil, water, land, crop, livestock, fish, ecosystem service and agroforestry-related) are most likely to benefit women in particular, where, how and why? What interventions, actions, strategies and approaches will help stimulate them?
CCAFS Theme Gender Impact Pathways – Theme 2 example Outputs Outcomes Impacts Papers, workshops More More and trainings held, women and widespread Increased new knowledge men uptake of resilience to generated on: accessing climate-smart climate characteristics and and using agriculture shocks, implications of weather- technologies, enhanced gender-differentials and related strategies, hh food in access to and use agricultural approaches by security of climate-related information men and information women farmersStrategies to achieve outcomes/scale out results:•PAR approach in CCAFS sites; led by strategic partners: women researchers,women’s groups, NGOs, Met services, regional agricultural research orgs•Building capacity to understand and use seasonal forecasts, men and women•Communication efforts – increased awareness of importance and usefulness ofweather/climate information (e.g. radio programs targeting women)
Ways of answering gender-related questions: e.g. CCAFS Baseline SurveysHousehold level (food security, assets, ag activities/changes, etc):•Female vs male-headed households•Livelihood activities where most of the work is done by females, males, children•Women’s vs men’s access to weather-related informationVillage/community level:•Different perceptions of males and females on the present & past environmental conditions•Different abilities of males and females to observe and articulate changes and drivers of changein their communities•Different uses that males and females make of vegetation, animals, wildlife•Different roles of males and females in food production & conservation of natural resources•Different knowledge & access to local and supra local organizations that provide foodsecurity support in normal times and times of crisis•Different roles of male & female organizations on food production but also as safety networksand source of communal cohesion•Limited access to land, improved technology and equipment, as well as training opportunities forwomen despite their substantial role in crop and livestock productionData & reports for: 5 WA sites, 6 EA sites, Bihar, Punjab, Bangladesh, Nepal – at:www.ccafs.cgiar.org/resources/baseline-surveys
CCAFS Baseline Surveys – Gender issues addressedOrganizational level:•level of activity/bias that the current activities of each organisation hastowards disadvantaged groups, women and children
Capacity strengthening and catalyzing gender & climate change research in our regions FAO/CCAFS Gender and CC methods and training materials developed and 3 regional research teams trained (training of trainers) Pilot studies in Bangladesh, Uganda & Ghana found: •Rural women are eager to learn about adaptation options; their time & mobility constraints mean more innovative means of reaching them are needed; ag advisory services targeted to women! •Daily, but not yet longer-term, weather forecasts are being used by some, but less so by women Issues: Access to information, trust, communication, capacity •Climate and women-smart agricultural investment options often require collective action, e.g. support to womens’ groups, plus tenure & other policywww.ccafs.cgiar.org/gender changes are needed.
CCAFS/FAO gender-CC approachesIssues addressed:•different ag. roles and responsibilities of men and women & how they arechanging•differential access to agricultural and weather information•potential and ways to make climate analogues accessible & useful for men andwomen, including differential mobility and cultural constraints•what climate-smart agriculture practices have been taken up by men and women,and how and why these changes have come about•what kinds of institutions (broadly defined as the ‘rules of the game’), strategiesand approaches can support shifts to climate-smart agriculture practices by bothmen and women?Methods: Village resource maps, seasonal calendar, weather forecasts(daily and seasonal), changing farming practices, Venn diagram, dailyactivity clocksWhere: Pilots in CCAFS sites in Bangladesh, Ghana and UgandaMethods and Training materials downloadable at: www.ccafs.cgiar.org/gender
Gender, Agriculture, and Assets Program Conceptual Framework Context: Ecological, Social, Economic, Political factors, etc. Shocks Consumption Livelihood Assets Strategies Full Incomes Well-being Savings/ Investment Legend: Women Joint Men (http://gaap.ifpri.info/)
GAAP toolsIssues addressed:• gender dimensions of asset ownership and controlMethods:• qual-quant methods; researchers ask not only about ownership but also about a spectrum of asset rights, including use and decision-making over assets
IFPRI/USAID Feed the Future WEIA Five Domains of Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture The WEAI was developed to track the change in women’s empowerment levels that occurs as a direct or indirect result of interventions under Feed the Future, the US government’s global hunger and food security initiative. http://www.ifpri.org/publication/womens-empowerment-agriculture-index
WEAI approachIssues addressed:WEAI: a composite measurement tool for tracking progresstoward gender equality, that:•Indicates women’s control over critical parts of their lives inthe household, community, and economy•Identifies women who are disempowered•Identifies ways in which to increase autonomy and decision-making in key domains (e.g. assets, leadership, etc)Methods:•a household survey interviewing men and women from thesame household•case studies
Implementing in Hubs, or Gender Sentinel Sites – e.g. Khulna Hub, Bangladesh Improved rice, shrimp vars, mgmentAg credit, Improved land,tenure water mgment Local partners: Climate smart villages BRAC, SAVE Insurance, seed banks Home gardens
SW Bangladesh ‘Khulna Hub’ Theory of Change/Outcome logic CRP3/CSISA CRP2 New rice CRP4 O CRP5 CCAFS/CRP7 Sustainable varieties & Improved water Improved CSA villages, U water&land suitable aqua. homestead T governance & climate services mgment policies species & production P management insurance Strengthened mgment systems id’d Seed/food banks U groups practices id’d TS EXTENSIONISTS <>FARMER COMMUNITIES<>SEED SECTOR PLAYERS<>NGO<> A MICROFINANCE AGENCIES<>WATER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITIES<>LGED<> BWDB<>POLICY C MAKER<>CGIAR RESEARCHERS<>NARS<>CIVIL SOCIETY ORGS <>Donor T O CHANGES IN KNOWLEDGE ATTITUDES AND SKILLS R One or more of the actor groups have better understand and/or skills in: the benefits and value of new technologies and O crop/fish varieties; implications of different land use plans, the impacts of external drivers of change on water resources; community involvement in water mgment; how to work in partnership across scales and sectors in an adaptive & problem- UT oriented way C O CHANGES IN PRACTICES MOne or more of the actor groups: use high level scenario planning; use tools and effective water governance strategies; improveplanning of water infrastructure; use new farm-level technologies, seeds and adaptation strategies; private sector involvement ESin the agriculture sector including information, finance, markets and inputs; using a theory-of-change-based approach to NRM to foster rural innovation I MP Reduce poverty, improve food security and strengthen livelihood resilience A in coastal areas through improved water infrastructure , governance and management, and more productive and diversified farm system C T
Segou hub, Mali CRP 5 CRP 1.1 Improved water, Drought tolerant, soil mgment Water efficient crops/varieties/livestock breeds Agroforestry Feed management Crop residue mgment CRP 4 nutrition CRP7 Impr weather info Climate analogues insurance Partners: IFAD FODESA large devel. Project IFDC TreeAid Sahel Eco IER (Mali NARES) AMEDD, etc.
Kisumu/Nyando Basin (western Kenya) Economics of Biochar (Cornell) MICCA – East African Dairy Development (FAO, ICRAF, ILRI, KARI, private sector partners) COMART Community-led assets/value chains CARE – carbon payments to smallholders ICRAF – GHG measurement in complex landscapes Vi Agroforestry – SLM, carbon payments CCAFS PAR – with ILRI, Vi, World Neighbours, Lake Victoria CBOs, Min of Ag, Min of LS, KARI: training, K CCAFS Baseline site sharing, etc in: CARE, PAR •Water harvesting; Agroforestry; Small ruminant management; Beekeeping; Seed systems; Post- harvest handling and storage; FodderYellow squares: 10x10km2 ICRAF development; Participatory crop selectionsoils research blocks CIAT-TSBF - legumes and N-fixation through the legume Africa network potential CIMMYT/KARI - Insect and Striga resistant and drought tolerant Maize
Pro-poor, pro-women strategies – Nyando exampleMICCA – EADD – dairy (FAO, ICRAF, ILRI, KARI, private sectorpartners) – hub model; training of women; women leaders;payments to womenCOMART Community-led asset and value chain focus; workingwith women’s groups; women’s trainingsCARE/CCAFS/ICRAF – smallholder CSA – institutional issuesincluding strategies for ensuring benefits to women (e.g.women’s trees, women’s groups, etc); evaluating women’sparticipation and constraintsCCAFS/ILRI PAR – Participatory crop & animal selection withwomen, support/training to women’s groups, others?What other successful strategies can we employ to enhance thepro-women, pro-poor impacts of these R4D efforts?