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Articulating Africa-Wide Policy Issues for Adaptation and Mitigation


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Lindiwe Majele Sibanda, FANRPAN. 4 May 2010.

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Articulating Africa-Wide Policy Issues for Adaptation and Mitigation

  1. 1. Articulating Africa-Wide Policy Issues for Adaptation and Mitigation CCAFS Launch Conference: Building Food Security in the face of Climate Change Lindiwe  Majele  Sibanda  (PhD)   Nairobi,  Kenya  4  May  2010
  2. 2. Outline  Saving  the  Planet  or  a  Win  -­‐  Win  Treaty?   •  Global  Climate  Change  Scenario   •  Clash  of  the  Titans  Climate  Change  and    Africa     •  Status  of  Smallholder  Farmers     •  Climate  Change  Impacts  What  is  Africa  Doing?   •  CAADP     •  The  African  Climate  Posi>on  -­‐  Road  to  Copenhagen     •  Priori>es  for  Africa  -­‐  Adapta>on  and  Mi>ga>on   •  Model  for  Engagement
  3. 3. Growing  Challenges  •  1.7  billion  more  people  to  feed  •  Ra>o  of  arable  land  to  popula>on  declining  by   40-­‐55%    •  Growing  water  scarcity  •  Climate  change
  4. 4. Saving  the  Planet  or  a  Win  -­‐  Win  Treaty   Clash  of  the  Titans     Least  Developed  Countries!!!   America  +  Europe   G77  +  China,  India,  Brazil   When  the  bull  elephants  fight  –  AFRICA    suffers
  5. 5. Climate  Change  and  Sustainable  Development  in  Africa  Africa  contributes  only  about  3.8%  of  total  GHGs  Yet   African   countries   are   among   the   most   vulnerable   to   climate   change,  because  of  the  following  factors:   •  High  poverty  levels   •  Heavy  reliance  on  climate-­‐sensi>ve  sectors  (e.g.  rain-­‐fed  agriculture,   mining,  oil  &  gas,  fisheries,  forests,  tourism,  etc.)   •  Poor  economic  and  social  infrastructure   •  Exis>ng  stresses  on  health  and  well  being  (e.g.,  HIV/AIDS,  Malaria,   illiteracy)   •  Conflicts     •  Low  adap>ve  capacity  (limited  human,  ins>tu>onal,  technological   and  financial  capaci>es)
  6. 6. Climate  Change  in  Africa  •  Africa      _    0.5C  warmer  now  than  100  years  ago   x•  Temperatures  have  risen  much  higher  ,  parts  of     Kenya    have  become  3.5°C  hoaer  in  the  past  20   years   (Oxfam,  the  New  Economics  FoundaOon  and  the  Working  Group  on  Climate  Change  and  Development)  •  Agriculture  contributes  over  20%  GDP    •  Climate  change  nega>ve  impact  on  agriculture  -­‐   up  to  2%  by  2010   6
  7. 7. Why  Africa’s  Climate  Change  Burden  is  Greater  •   300  million  people  –  35%  of  Africans  live  in  extreme  poverty    •   250  million  people  –  30%  directly  affected  by  deser>fica>on  and  drought  •   Africa  is  the  least  polluter  -­‐  (3.8%)  of  the  GHG  concentra>ons  in  the  atmosphere   7
  8. 8. COMESA:  2003  Crop  Yields(MT/ha)  COMESA  vs.  Global  Crop      COMESA      Global  Maize    1.39        4.47  Rice      1.12        3.84  Wheat    1.38        2.66  Sorghum    0.67        1.30  Cassava    8.18                    10.76  Beans    0.60        0.70  Bananas    4.69                    15.25
  9. 9. What  is  Africa  Doing?  •   AFRICAN  UNION-­‐CAADP  •   Africa  Bio-­‐Carbon  Ini>a>ve  • FARMING  FIRST   9
  10. 10. The  Comprehensive  Africa  Agriculture  Development  Programme  (CAADP)  •   Endorsed  by  the  AU  Assembly  –  July  2003  •   Goal      “to  help  African  countries  reach  a  higher  path  of   economic  growth  through  agriculture-­‐led   development,  which  eliminates  hunger,  reduces   poverty  &  food  insecurity  &  enables  expansion  of   exports.”   10
  11. 11. What  is  Africa  Doing?   Comprehensive  Africa  Agriculture  Development  Plan   CAADP  Areas  of  IntervenOon  Pillar  1   Extending  the  area  under  sustainable  land   management  and  reliable  water  control   systems  Pillar  2   Improvement  of  rural  infrastructure  and   enhanced  market  access  Pillar  3   Increased  food  availability  and  nutriOon  Pillar  4       Improving  agricultural  research  and  technology   disseminaOon  and  adopOon
  12. 12. His  Excellency  Ngwazi  Dr.  Bingu  wa  Mutharika     “MALAWI  SHALL  NEVER  GO  BEGGING  FOR  FOOD  AGAIN”     2004   “IN  5  YEARS  NO  AFRICAN  CHILD  SHOULD  DIE  OF  HUNGER  AND  MALNUTRITION”     January  2010
  13. 13. Bringing  PerspecOves  Together  CAADP  addresses  the  climate  challenge  by:  •  enhancing  biodiversity  through  sustainable  agriculture  and  agroforestry  •  safeguarding  the  produc>vity  of  farms  through  SLWM  But,  recognizing  climate  change,  both  local  and  global,  as  a  threat  to   these  objecOves,  by  •  using  these  same  approaches  as  adapta>on  strategies  to  climate   change.  And,  recognizing  the  role  that  carbon  plays  in  land  use,  as  well  as  in  the   global  climate  regime,  by  •   linking  mi>ga>on  strategies,  especially  carbon  sequestra>on,  to  these   goals.
  14. 14. The  Africa  Bio-­Carbon  Initiative  •  An  iniOaOve  of  COMESA,  EAC  and  SADC  –  NOW  AFRICAWIDE  •  Launched  in  Poznan  in  December  2008    •  Endorsed    African  Heads  of  States-­‐  Libya  2009   –  Nobel  Laureate  Wangari  Maathai     –  Honourable  Rejoice  MabudaKasi,  Deputy  Minister  of  Environmental   Affairs,  South  Africa,     –  Mr  Agus  Purnomo  from  Indonesias  NaSonal  Council  on  Climate   Change   –  Honourable  Ligia  de  Doens,  Minister  of  Environment  for  Panama   –  Honourable  Ambassador  Blake  of    AnSgua  and  Barbuda   –  Brent  Swallow  from  the  World  Agroforestry  Centre  (ICRAF)     –  Alexander  Mueller  from  the  Food  and  Agriculture  OrganisaSon  (FAO)     14
  15. 15. The  Africa  Bio-­‐Carbon  IniOaOve    Vision  •  To  reduce  climate  change  impacts  and  enhance  community  resilience    •  Enhance  access  to  rural  energy  and  empower  rural  popula>ons,    •  Increased  agricultural  produc>vity  and  improved  food  security    PURPOSE  A  post-­‐2012  climate  change  framework  that:  •  Acknowledges  Africas  food  security  efforts      •  Rewards  i  climate  change  mi>ga>on  in  agriculture,  forestry  and  other  land-­‐uses    •  Promotes  adapta>on    CALL  •  To  call  for  release  of  funding  for  research  and  the  development    ac>vi>es  to  enhance   learning  and  ensure  that  sustainable  agriculture/forestry/land  use  ac>vi>es  are  rewarded   and  eligible  for  funding  in  the  interna>onal  post-­‐2012  framework.   15
  16. 16. The  Africa  Climate  Change  Focus   IniOaOve  •  IntegraOon  –  Climate  Change  considera>ons  must  be  integrated  into  policies,   sectoral  planning  and  implementa>on  at  local,  na>onal  and  regional  levels  •  Disaster  reducOon  and  risk  management  –  beaer  diagnosis  of  vulnerabili>es   and  strengthen  local  leadership  and  response  •  Building  economic  and  social  resilience  •  Reflects  African  reali>es  and  priori>es  -­‐  poverty  reduc>on  and  community   benefits    •  Reduced  emissions  for  deforestaOon  and  forest  degradaOon  (REDD)  •  Agriculture,  Forest  and  Other  Land  Use  (AFOLU)  •  Land  Use,  Land  Use  Change  and  Forestry  (LULUCF)
  17. 17. The  Africa  Bio-­‐Carbon  IniOaOve  Principles  •  Africa  reaffirms  its  commitment  to  climate  change  mi>ga>on  and  adapta>on  •  Ini>a>ve  advanced  and  driven  by  African  leadership    •  Reflects  African  reali>es  and  priori>es  -­‐  poverty  reduc>on  and  community   benefits    •  Builds  on  exis>ng  African  ins>tu>ons  and  frameworks  (e.g.  NEPAD  -­‐  CAADP,  )    •  Seeks  to  Establish  stronger  linkages  between    food  security,  climate  change  and   global  environmental  conven>ons  •  Avoids  duplica>on  and  leverages  on  global  partnerships  for  evidence  to   support  policy  processes   17
  18. 18. Addressing  Climate  Change  –  To  Do  •  ADAPTATION  is  happening    today!  •   NAPAS-­‐  African  countries  ac>vely  preparing  these  and   need  support  •  MITIGATION  –focus  on  opportuni>es!   •  Recognize  that  total  CO2  emissions  are  low,  but  per  capita  emissions   are  high  if  land-­‐use  changes  are  taken  into  account   •  Focus  on  mi>ga>on  op>ons  which  reduce  land  degrada>on  and     vulnerabili>es   •  13  African  countries  have  prepared  NAMAs   18
  19. 19. NAPAS-­‐Country  X  •  Sensi>za>on  of  popula>on  on  effec>ve  water    use  •  Dis>lling  exis>ng  water  dams  and  construc>on  of  new  ones  •  Expansion  of  food  subsidies  in  rural  areas  •  Conserva>on  and  protec>on  of  the  country’s  water  towers  •  Encourage  water  harves>ng  in  urban  and  rural  areas  •  Enhanced  food  relief  supply  to  the  vulnerable  •  Increased  use  of  insec>cide  treated  materials
  20. 20. NAPAS-­‐Country  Y  •  Sensi>za>on  of  popula>on  on  effec>ve  water    use  •  Replacement  of  household  goat  herds  with  sheep  herds  to  reduce  pressure  on   fragile  rangelands  •  Introduc>on  of  drought-­‐resistant  seed  varie>es  and  increased  fish  and  poultry   produc>on  •  Introduc>on  of  new  water  harves>ng/spreading  techniques    •  Rehabilita>on  of  exis>ng  dams  as  well  as  improvements  in  water  basin   infrastructure  for  increased  water  storage  capacity    •  Improvement  of  access  to  groundwater  supplies  by  humans  and  animals   though  installa>on  of  water  pumps
  21. 21. Africa’s  Strategy  –  “REDD  –  AFOLU  CoaliOon”  •   Africa  promotes  REDD  +-­‐  the  reduc>on  of  greenhouse  gas  emissions  by  forest  sources   – REDD  provides  a  unique  opportunity  for  forest  naSons  to  be   rewarded  for  forest  protecSon  and  stewardship   – REDD++  is  a  welcome  opportunity  •   Africa  promotes  AFOLU  -­‐  carbon  sequestra>on  through  agriculture,  forestry  and  land  use     21
  22. 22. Climate  Change  in  Africa   Status  of  African  Farmers  •  Land  owned  –  maximum  2  acres  •  Main  Crops  –  Staples  (Corn)  •  Livestock-­‐mul>ple  use  low  returns  •  Yield  Maize  100kg/ha  •  Fer>lizer  used:  0.2  of     recommended/desired  levels  •  Use  of  recycled  seeds  •  Agricultural  implements     owned  -­‐  hand  hoe  •  Policy  engagements  Nil
  23. 23. Puing  Farming  First  -­‐  Key  Principles
  24. 24. PrioriOse  Research  ImperaOves    meet  the  challenges  of  the  future  •  Conduct  research  on  food  systems,  soil  fer>lity,  water  availability,  crop  losses  ,   livestock  systems  -­‐-­‐-­‐  climate  change  •  Improving  produc>vity  through  responsible  science  and  technology  •  Increase  public  and  private  investment  in  R&D  •  Promote  farmer-­‐centered  research  •  Establish  public-­‐private  partnerships
  25. 25. Safeguard  Natural  Resources      Improve  land  management  pracOces  •  Conserva>on  >llage    •  Watershed  management  •  Wildlife  habitat  and  biodiversity  protec>on  •  Create  incen>ves  for  ecosystem  services
  26. 26. Actors  in  the  food  systems   CGIAR, Earth System Science Partnership,Global Research Partnerships CCAFS FARA:CORAF, NASRO, ASARECA, CARDESA, NARES, African Researchers UNIVERSITIES Agro-Inputs, Processing, Private Sector Packaging, Trade and Marketing Farmer organisations Evidence based, predictable policiesNGOs, Media and Advocacy orgs Rallying point for advocacy
  27. 27. Food System ACTIVITIES Producing food: natural resources, inputs, markets, … Processing & packaging food: raw materials, standards, storage requirement, … Distributing & retailing food: transport, marketing, advertising, … Consuming food: acquisition, preparation, customs, … Food System OUTCOMES Contributing to: Social Welfare Food Security, i.e. stability over time Environmental•  Income for: Welfare•  Employment •  Ecosystem•  Wealth FOOD FOOD stocks & flows UTILISATION ACCESS•  Social capital •  Ecosystem•  Political capital • Nutritional Value • Affordability services•  Human capital • Social Value • Allocation •  Access to natural • Food Safety • Preference capital FOOD AVAILABILITY • Production • Distribution • Exchange
  28. 28.  MulO  –  Stakeholder  Policy  Engagements   NATIONAL LEVEL REGIONAL LEVEL Policy Ongoing Research Advisory •  Coordination of multi-country studies Studies Process •  Synthesis of research evidence National Into Agenda for Policy engagements Policy Emerging Issues and Dialogues Agenda for •  Networking, sharing of information, regional andFANR Policies Tracking (Periodic) Policy global representation Engagement Africa Region Across all AU-RECs (Representatives from all FANR Stakeholder Groups) (CGIAR, Earth System Science Partnership, •  Farmers’ Organisations CCAFS •  Governments •  Private Sector All Stakeholder Groups) •  Researchers •  Development Partners • Media • NGOs –
  29. 29. Facing  up  to  the  Climate  Change  Challenge-­‐  Partnerships  •  Iden>fy  and  develop    regional  and  country  programmes  capacity  to  generate   and  administer  an  adequate  base  of  knowledge  base  to  address  climate   change  challenge  for  sustainable  development  •  Focus  on  climate-­‐related  ac>vi>es:   •  Policy   research   and   analysis:   control   of   ac>vi>es   responsible   for   emissions,   par>cipatory  adapta>on  cost  assessment     •  Consensus   building   at   community   and   na>onal   level:   alterna>ve   grassroots   climate  change  adapta>on  strategies   •  Holding  local  corpora>ons  to  account  (responsibility  &liability  )   •  Capacity  strengthening,  technical  advice  and  assistance   •  Communica>on  and  outreach  and  movement  building   •  Knowledge  management  and  peer  learning     •  Linking  agriculture  and  climate  scien>sts
  30. 30. The  New  Economy-­‐  Bio-­‐Carbon  IniOaOve   Model  for  DistribuOng  New  Money    •   Scale  up  of  community  managed  environment  programmes,  e.g.  CAMPFIRE  –communal  areas  management  program  for  indigenous  resources  • Scale  up  role  of  CSOs-­‐  watch  dog  role  (give  evidence  and  voice  to  Farmers,  media,  women)  •   Smallholder  farmers  act  as  environmental  custodians  -­‐  creates  jobs  -­‐  local  people  are  trained  and  become  involved  as  environmental  educators,  etc    •   Benefits  from  carbon  finance  cement  community  collec>ve  responsibility  :  -­‐  incenSve  for  people  to  conserve  environment,  -­‐  generates  funds  for  community  projects  infrastructure  and  new  market  opportuniSes
  31. 31. The  Africa  Bio-­‐Carbon  IniOaOve   Road  to  Copenhagen  –visible  impact  •  23-­‐27  February  2009,  New  York,  USA        Intergovernmental  Preparatory  MeeOng  (IPM)  of  the  Seventeenth  Session  of  the   United  NaOons  Commission  on  Sustainable  Development  (CSD-­‐17)    -­‐  Discussed  policy  opSons  and  possible  acSons  to  enable  the  implementaSon  of   measures  and  policies  on  agriculture,  rural  development,  land,  drought,  deserSficaSon   in  Africa    •  14-­‐16  April  2009  Durban,  South  Africa        SACAU  Policy  Conference    -­‐  Developed  clear  strategy  on  climate  change  and  agriculture  in  Southern  Africa  •  6-­‐8  April,  Kadoma,  Zimbabwe        COMESA  Zimbabwe  Climate  Change  Roundtable    -­‐  Developed  a  consensus  on  the  Africa  climate  change  posiSon  •  4  –  6  April  2009,  Lusaka,  Zambia        Regional  ConservaOon  Agriculture  Tour    -­‐  ConservaSon  agriculture’s  role  in  miSgaSon  and  adaptaSon  to  Climate  Change   promoted
  32. 32. Climate  Change  and  Africa   Status  of  African  Farmers  •  Small  scale  producers  responsible  for   over  80%  of  staple  food  crops  •  Women    -­‐  main  food  producers  in   sub-­‐Saharan  Africa  accoun>ng  for:   a)  70%  of  the  agricultural  labour   force     b)  80%  of  food  produc>on     -­‐  64%  of  People  Living  With   HIV  and  AIDS  are  in  sub   Saharan  Africa  (SSA)   -­‐  75%  of  all  Women  LHWA   are  in  SSA
  33. 33. Wanjiku’s  Dream  –Secure  Livelihood   Land  Owned  -­‐1  hectare   Crops-­‐  Staples  &  high  values  crops   Yield  Maize  3t/ha   High  quality  seeds     Fer>lizer  used:  0.7  of  recommended  levels      Agricultural  Implements  hires  a  tractor,    Owns  2  cows,  5  goats
  34. 34. Farmer  of  the  Future-­‐ICT  Friendly
  35. 35. The  Africa  Bio-­‐Carbon  IniOaOve   Lessons  for  Barcelona  •  Align  research  agenda  with  global  climate  calendar  •  Include  CSOs  in  main  na>onal  nego>a>ng  delega>ons  and  form   coali>ons  •  Highlight    where  Agriculture  can  be  included  &  reinforced  in   nego>a>ng  text  •  Ensure  integra>on  of  African  media  in  COP15  delega>ons  to   amplify  African  voice  and  hold  governments  accountable  •  Support  nego>a>ng  teams  pre-­‐  and  during  nego>a>ons    •  Evidence  for  collec>ve  engagements  in  side  mee>ng  at  COP16
  36. 36. What  Needs  To  Be  Done-­‐  What  Needs  To  Be  Done  in  2010-­‐       •  LULUCF  inventory  of  emissions  and  rules  explicitly  include   agriculture   •  Agriculture  and  food  security  are  part  of  ac>ons  in  implemen>ng   the  Copenhagen  Accord   •  Coherent  mi>ga>on  plans  with  adapta>on  plans  and  poverty   reduc>on  strategies  -­‐  key  for  agriculture  which  is  osen  a  priority   sector  in  both  NAMAs  and  NAPAs   •  Use  of  best  prac>ce  lessons  from  agriculture  programmes  to   inform  global  and  na>onal  policies   •  Regional  and  na>onal  ini>a>ves,  such  as  CAADP  are  supported  to   integrate  climate  change  into  their  policies  and  plans
  37. 37. ConclusionAgriculture  is  the  back-­‐bone  of  Africa’s  livelihoods.     A  climate  change  deal  must  include  Agriculture,   Forestry  and  Other  Land  Uses  (AFOLU)   COP  16  -­‐NO  Agriculture  is     NO  GLOBAL  DEAL   To  endorse-­‐  Visit