Learning Event No. 8, Session 4: Niggli. ARDD2012 Rio

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Presentation by Niggli Urs, PhD, Director Research Institute for Organic Agriculture, at the 2012 Agriculture and Rural Development Day (ARDD) in Rio de Janiero, Learning Event No. 8, Session 4: Process and product related aspects of organic food quality - from biodiversity to human nutrition.

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Learning Event No. 8, Session 4: Niggli. ARDD2012 Rio

  1. 1. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture Forschungsinstitut für biologischen Landbau Institut de recherche de l’agriculture biologiqueProcess and product related aspects oforganic food quality - from biodiversity tohuman nutrition.Urs Niggli
  2. 2. Is organic food healthier?Organic king-size-Burger Conventional apple No way! Mac Cheese Organic apple Yes of course! Double Burger www.fibl.org
  3. 3. The concept of health is a comprehensiveone – and consumers do understand it in aholistic way. www.fibl.org
  4. 4. Trade-offs between food production and otherecosystem servicesSoil erosion Climate change Water waste and pollutionLosses of biodiversity Food security www.fibl.org
  5. 5. Organic = Strentghening synergies between foodproduction and other ecosystem services. www.fibl.org
  6. 6. Sustainablity never means focussing on oneindicator High methane emission Low methane emission dairy system dairy system www.fibl.org
  7. 7. 2 Examples for the interaction betweenecologically sustainable farming practicesand superior food quality: www.fibl.org
  8. 8. 1Worldwide agricultural land use(in billion ha and percentage) www.fibl.org FAOSTAT, 2011
  9. 9. Permanent grassland: Hotspots of habitat and species diversity Forests Grassland Fields Human Alpine Mountains settlements pastureVascular 21 +/- 1 35 +/- 1 15 +/- 1 19 +/- 3 42 +/- 3 21 +/-plantsMosses 15 +/- 1 6 +/- 1 1 +/- 0 5 +/- 1 19 +/- 2 13 +/- 1Snails 9 +/- 1 6 +/- 0 3 +/- 1 6 +/- 1 3 +/- 1 3 +/- 1 Source: BDM Switzerland www.fibl.org
  10. 10. Low health status and longevity: Culling ratesin comparison Projected culling rates corresponding to the percentage of heifers in the herd per year Concentrates- Based diets Roughage-based diets The Israeli herd book Hare et al. (2008) (2006) www.fibl.org 73 organic dairy farms of FiBL
  11. 11. Production of grass-clover leys in arablerotations: source and driver for nitrogen,protein, soil fertility, water conservation www.fibl.org
  12. 12. Soil quality data from field experiments Increased SOM or Corg-contents (Gerhardt, 1997; Clark et al., 1998; Brown et al., 2000; Pulleman et al., 2003; Pimentel et al., 2005; Marriott & Wander, 2006) Ranging from 10 to 60 % Increased carbon stocks (+ 5 tons of carbon per hectare (average of 76 Studies, Gattinger et al., 2012 (submitted)). Improved biological properties of soils (e.g. microbial biomass, microbial enzyme activities, abundance of earthworms and soil-dwelling insects): Gerhardt, 1997; Siegrist et al., 1998; Hansen et al., 2001; Mäder et al., 2002; Pulleman et al., 2003; Fließbach et al., 2007, Pfiffner, L. and Luka, H., 2002. Ranging from 40 to 120 %. www.fibl.org
  13. 13. Organic = good adaptation to climate changedue to higher soil carbon levels Increased aggregate stability (Gerhardt, 1997; Siegrist et al., 1998; Brown et al., 2000; Maeder et al., 2002; Pulleman et al., 2003; Williams & Petticrew, 2009). Increased water holding capacity, higher water content in soil (Brown et al., 2000; Lotter et al., 2003; Pimentel et al., 2005) PGPR (Plant growth- Improved infiltration promoting rhizobacteria) rate of water (Lotter et al., 2003; Pimentel et al., 2005; Zeiger & Fohrer, 2009). www.fibl.org
  14. 14. Milk quality (EU project QLIF, 2005/2006)Effect of organic and conventional production systems 100 North East England Wales% higher 80in organic p<0.01milk 60 40 20 0 RRR-alpha beta lutein zeaxanthine CLA omega-3 tocopherol carotene ______ _____________________ ______________ Vit E Vit A (carotenes) poly-unsaturated Fat-soluble Vitamins fatty acids www.fibl.org Butler et al., 2009. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
  15. 15. Davis University field trial: high levels of 2polyphenolic compounds (antioxydants) Tomatoes: Quercetin + 79 % Kaempferol + 97 % Positively correlated with duration and SOM rise. www.fibl.org
  16. 16. Improved productivityof land use for food.-> Food insecurity andobesity! Productive Conventional farming Organic farming Low external input farming Cereals for livestock 85 % lossesUnproductive Energy crops 100 % losses www.fibl.org
  17. 17. Conclusions Many organic practices have both environmental and health benefits: E.g. forage-based dairy and meat production from ruminants (maintaining biodiversity of grassland and carbon stocks in soils and delivering high quality milk). E.g. organic fertilization improving both soil carbon stock and the contents of antioxidants in food. E.g. resilient crop systems increasing both biodiversity and the contents of antioxidants and the taste of foods. Organic production means a change of nutritional patterns and food consumption towards more vegetable foods and less high fat and high protein ones. Organic combined with changes in diets (and less food wastes) can nourish also a growing population. www.fibl.org

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