Learning Event No. 3, Session 1: Aracely Castro. ARDD2012 Rio


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Presentation by Aracely Castro at the 2012 Agriculture and Rural Development Day (ARDD) in Rio de Janiero, Learning Event No. 3, Session 1: How can sustainable intensification of livestock production through improved feeding practices help realize livelihood and environmental benefits? http://www.agricultureday.org

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Learning Event No. 3, Session 1: Aracely Castro. ARDD2012 Rio

  1. 1. Outline• Agriculture and rural development• Demand for livestock products• Importance of livestock production to smallholders• Livestock production and greenhouse gas emissions• LivestockPlus: A new concept• Benefits of LivestockPlus and associated strategies• Key messages
  2. 2. Agriculture and Rural Development• Poverty: ‐ Three out of every four poor people in developing countries live in rural areas ‐ Most depend on agriculture for their livelihoods• Agriculture plays a vital role in sustainable development: ‐ After many years of neglect, agriculture and food security are back on the development and political agenda ‐ Agriculture contributes not just to food production, but also to human nutrition and health ‐ It also provides other key ecosystem services at multiple scales (e.g., water and biodiversity protection)
  3. 3. Agriculture and Rural Development 60 years of accelerated population growth in developing countries
  4. 4. Demand for Livestock Products Source: FAO, 2009Developing countries:• Expenditure on livestock products increases rapidly with increase in income (more than any other commodity group)• Greatest increases in South and SE Asia, and Latin America
  5. 5. Importance of Livestock Production to Smallholders Revised demand for livestock products to 2050 Annual per capita consumption Total consumption (kg) (Mt) Countries Year Meat Milk Meat Milk 2002 28 44 137 222 Developing 2050 44 78 326 585 2002 78 202 102 265 Developed 2050 94 216 126 295 Souce: Rosegrant et al., 2009 Developing countries: • Smallholders predominate • Livestock: ‐ Produce 50% of beef, 41% of milk, 72% of mutton, 59% of pork, and 53% of poultry ‐ Provide food for at least 830 million food-insecure people
  6. 6. Importance of Livestock Production to SmallholdersRwanda’s “One Cow per Poor Family” Program (Girinka):• Family either receives donation of cow or bank loan to buy one• Calf is shared with other members of communityResults - poverty alleviationthrough:• Reduced malnutrition risk• Income from sale of milk and offspring• Manure for croplands• Community solidarity Photo by: ILRI
  7. 7. Importance of Livestock Production to Smallholders Dissemination of improved Brachiaria grasses in Rwanda: • On-farm trials for participatory evaluation of improved materials of Brachiaria to increase fodder production under drought and acid soil conditions • Across evaluation sites farmers preferred Brachiaria cv. Mulato II due to its contribution to higher milk yields during dry season • Monitoring and evaluation of Brachiaria grass options has enhanced smallholders awareness of new forage alternatives for limiting environments • Increased interest in improved materials: replacement of the commonly used forage grass (Napier) by Brachiaria on erosion control ridges Source: ISAR, Rwanda
  8. 8. Livestock Production & Greenhouse Gas Emissions Livestock: up to 18% of global emissions ??? On-farm fossil fuel use 1.2% Other 3.6% Artificial fertilizers Deforestation and (including direct) desertification 3.4% 35.4% Enteric fermentation by ruminant 25% Manure (direct and indirect) 35.5% Source: McMichael et al., 2007Source: FAO, 2006
  9. 9. Livestock Production & Greenhouse Gas Emissions Livestock Emissions Source Gigatons CO2 equivalentThe livestock sector is Land use and land-use change 2.5responsible for:• 50% of all land use Feed production 0.4 change emissions Animal production 1.9• 80% of all agriculture emission Manure management 2.2 Processing and transport 0.03 Source: FAO Potential strategy: development of synergies for adaptation and mitigation to climate change through improved technologies and production systems
  10. 10. LivestockPlus: A New Concept Meat, milk & more! Potential to mitigate climate change and other co-benefits of forage-based systems Source: Peters et al., 2012
  11. 11. LivestockPlus Multifunctional role of forage-based production systems vs. feedlot based systems
  12. 12. LivestockPlus Source: Erb et al., 2007Pasture lands: • 30-45% of earth’s terrestrial surface • 80% of all agricultural land • 70% of previously forested land in the • 1/3 arable land used for feed crop Amazon production
  13. 13. LivestockPlus 15 months Silvopastoral systems: A mini-revolution in Colombia and Central America!Source: CIPAV October 22, 2008Piedemonte Llanero, Colombia 13 monthsInitial state: July 17, 2007 August 15, 2008
  14. 14. LivestockPlus Benefits from improved pastures on crop production 5 LSD 0.05 = 0.718Maize grain yield (Mg ha-1) 4 Impact of building up of an arable 3 layer in low fertility acid soils to 2 improve maize grain yields 1 0 Native Maize Introduced savanna monoculture pasture Source: Amézquita et al., 2007
  15. 15. LivestockPlus High potential of C sequestration with improved pastures Source: Fisher et al., 1996 SOC under pastures of Brachiaria humidicola alone (Bh) and with Arachis pintoi (Ap) and native savanna (NS) on a clay loam Oxisol on the eastern plains of Colombia % C (modified Walkley-Black) 180 Source: Castro et al. (unpublished) Improved pasture Pasto Mejorado 160 Improved pasturedegradado Pasto mejorado (degraded) Native Savanna Sabana NativaAlmacenamiento ha-1C (t ha-1) 140 120 C stock (t de ) 100 C stocks in three predominant 80 60 land-use systems in the eastern 40 plains of Colombia 20 0 (a) Puerto López (b) Puerto Gaitán (c) Average Promedio
  16. 16. LivestockPlusPotential for reduced N2O, CH4 and CO2 emissions from pasture management 500 450 Source: PNAS 106: 17302-17307 (2009) Cumulative nitrous oxide 400 -1 mg N2O-Nm-2y-1y 350 emissions from field plots of -2 mgN2O-N m 300 tropical pasture grasses 250 (monitored monthly from 200 150 2005-2008) 100 50 0 Bare Soil Bare Soil Soybean Soybean P.P.maximum Hybrid Mulato Bh 679 maximum Hybrid Mulato Bh 679 Bh 16888 Bh 16888 Option used in 2030 Kg CH4/t milk Kg CH4/t meat Mitigation options in rangeland-based humid Cerrado 78 1552and sub-humid systems in 100% adoption of Brachiaria pasture 31 713Central and South America 30% adoption of Brachiaria pasture 64 1300 Source: Thornton and Herrero, 2010 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) 107:19667-19672
  17. 17. LivestockPlus Sensitivity analysis in a dairy system (including fattening calves): effect of changes in key parameters on GHG emissions per unit of animal protein• 10% increase of feed digestibility = emissions per kg protein reduced by ~15%• 10% increase of feed digestibility and milk production = emissions per kg protein reduced by ~19%
  18. 18. LivestockPlusDeveloping country productions systems that are eco-efficient B1 scenario shown, though the pattern is similar for all SRES scenarios Source: Smith P et al., 2008 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 363:789-813
  19. 19. LivestockPlus Grass-legume pastures can mitigate climate change Integrated Global Warming Potential (GWP) of different land uses in the savannas of Colombia 5000 Grass- Grass legume alone pasture pasture forest savanna sandy crops savannaGWP (kg CO2 equivalents) -5000 GWP20y GWP100y -15000 -25000 Source: Rondon et al., 2006
  20. 20. Key Messages• Well-managed tropical forage-based systems supported by good policies and strong institutions can contribute to improved livelihoods and to the overall quality of agro-ecosystems and the environment• LivestockPlus is suggested as a concept for sustainable intensification of agricultural production to enhance livelihoods and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions• Increased adoption of improved feeds, including sown forages, could significantly reduce GHG on a global scale, while enhancing the livelihoods of the 1 billion people dependent on livestock-cropping systems• Improved tropical forages could sequester large amounts of carbon – on a scale similar to that of forests – with the possibility of reducing emissions of nitrous oxide and methane per unit of livestock product• If widely applied, could deliver huge increases in food production at reduced environmental cost against a background of rising livestock production and consumption in the developing world.