Agriculture in National Adaptation Plans: Experiences and Lessons Learned


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How do countries plan climate change adaptation in Agriculture? A side event presented at UNFCCC COP19 in Warsaw, 15 November 2013 by CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) and partners. More at

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Agriculture in National Adaptation Plans: Experiences and Lessons Learned

  1. 1. CCAFS  SIDE  EVENT:       Agriculture  in   Na7onal  Adapta7on   Plans:  Experiences   and  Lessons  Learned    
  2. 2. Planning climate adaptation in agriculture: Meta-synthesis of national adaptation plans in West and East Africa and South Asia Gabrielle Kissinger, Donna Lee, Victor Orindi Presentation: Gabrielle Kissinger, Lexeme Consulting National Adaptation Plans (NAPs) and agriculture: Experiences and Lesson’s learned CGIAR CCAFS 15 November 2013, Warsaw, Poland  
  3. 3. 1 Policy overview •  Na7onal  Adapta7on  Plans  (NAPs)  established  in  2010  by  the  UNFCCC   to  help  facilitate  effecAve  medium-­‐  and  long-­‐term  adaptaAon  planning   and  implementaAon  in  developing  countries,  in  parAcular  Least   Developed  Countries  (LDCs)  (FCCC/CP/2011/9/Add.1)   •  AdaptaAon  CommiNee  est.  under  Cancun  AdaptaAon  Framework   promote  the  implementaAon  of  enhanced  acAon  on  adaptaAon.   Special  aNenAon  paid  to  facilitaAon  of  NAPs  by  non-­‐LDC  developing   country  ParAes.  Will  contribute  to,  and  not  duplicate  work  of  the  Least   Developed  Countries  Expert  Group  (LEG)  to  support  LDC  naAonal   adaptaAon  plan  processes  and  the  Subsidiary  Body  for  ImplementaAon   (SBI)  on  the  work  programme  concerning  loss  and  damage.   •  LEG  Technical  Guidelines  for  NAPs.  
  4. 4. NAPAs and NAPs Source:  Kissinger,  G.  and  T.  Namgyel,  2013.  NAPAs  and  NAPS  in  Least  Developed   Countries.    IIED  LDC  Paper  Series.  
  5. 5. NAPAs and NAPs COP  17  in  Durban  defined  NAP  process  objecAves  (FCCC/CP/2011/9/Add.1):   (a)  “reduce  vulnerability  to  the  impacts  of  climate  change,  by   building  adapAve  capacity  and  resilience,”  and   (b)  ”  facilitate  integraAon  of  climate  change  adaptaAon,  in  a   coherent  manner,  into  relevant  new  and  exisAng  policies,   programmes  and  acAviAes,  in  parAcular  development  planning   processes  and  strategies,  within  all  relevant  sectors  and  at  different   levels,  as  appropriate”.   …And  recognised  that  adaptaAon  planning  will  be  “conAnuous,   progressive  and  iteraAve.”  
  6. 6. NAPAs and NAPs NAPA   Simplified  and  direct   channels  of   communicaAon  for   informaAon  relaAng  to   the  urgent  and   immediate  adaptaAon   needs  of  the  LDCs   NAP   •  To  build  upon  NAPAs,  to  medium-­‐  and  long-­‐term   adaptaAon  needs  +  strategies  programmes  to   address  them.     •  Reduce  vulnerability,  build  adapAve  capacity  and   resilience,  conAnuous,  progressive  and  iteraAve   process.   •  Facilitate  integraAon  of  climate  change  adaptaAon   into  relevant  new  and  exisAng  policies,   programmes  and  acAviAes,  in  parAcular   development  planning  processes  and  strategies,   within  all  relevant  sectors  and  at  different  levels,  as   appropriate.  
  7. 7. Countries reviewed Country Adaptat East Africa Ethiopia NAPA, C Kenya National Tanzania NAPA, N Uganda NAPA West Africa Burkina Faso NAPA Ghana National Mali NAPA Niger NAPA Senegal NAPA + South Asia Bangladesh NAPA + India National Nepal NAPA
  8. 8. Analytical framework Risk assessment and ranking Design of strategy and measures Implementation Impacts and vulnerabilities assessed Identify and/or create institutional structures Development of concrete plan Prioritization of activities Distribution of responsibilities Tools: Ranking of risk Tools: Integration with development objectives Identification of needs Stakeholder consultation Identify conflict and synergies Definition of a timeline Application of M&E system Stakeholder engagement Funding and capacity building Figure 1. Analytical framework: National adaptation planning processes. Political economy context: Downward accountability for planning and implementation information sharing Adaptive institutions strengthening between government, civil society, research and private sector actors
  9. 9. Risk  assessment  and  ranking  and  ranking  of  risk:   Most  countries  reviewed  apply  criteria  to  rank  climate  risk,  though  oben  do   not  make  clear  how  assessment  of  these  elements  affect  prioriAzaAon  of   adaptaAon  acAons.     Ø  Level  of  confidence  in  assessing  risks   Ø  ConnecAon  between  climate  risk  ranking  criteria  and  evaluaAng  responses   to  risks   Ø  Vagueness  in  how  conflicAng  vulnerability  assessment  results  are  resolved   in  the  prioriAzaAon  of  response  opAons  (e.g.  Niger  rainfall)   Ø  Use  analyAcal  (e.g.  crop  models)  and  process  elements  (e.g.  expert  group   and  stakeholder  consultaAon  in  risk  assessment)   Ø  Difficult  to  account  for  the  changing  socioeconomic  status  of  populaAons  in   emerging  economies,  increased  urbanizaAon,  and  other  complex  factors  to   project  and  model  20-­‐100  yrs  out.  
  10. 10. Strategy  design/implementaAon     IntegraAon  with  development  and  agric  sector  plans   •  Structural  and  insAtuAonal  issues:  Agency  mandates,   capacity,     •  Integrated  adaptaAon  assessments  and  integrated   acAon  plans   •  How  to  strategically  place  adaptaAon  prioriAes  within   the  broader  naAonal  policy  framework?     •  Align  and  mainstream  into  naAonal  development  or   sector  plans  …and  leverage  donor  funds  for  ‘addiAonal’    
  11. 11. Adaptation plan implementation and funding Implementation •  ImplementaAon  funding:  from?   Political economy •  Timeline  for  implementaAon  of  acAviAes,   context: including  review   Development of concrete plan Distribution of responsibilities Identify conflict and synergies Definition of a timeline Application of M&E system Stakeholder engagement Downward •  IteraAvely  assess  conflicts  and  synergies   accountability with  naAonal  development  or  sectoral   for planning and implementation plans   •  information sharingonitoring  and  evaluaAon  (M&E)   Engage  m system  early:  iniAal  focus  on  process   Adaptive elements  not  outcomes…occur  at  all  scales   institutions and  involve  stakeholders.     strengthening between government, civil society, research and private sector
  12. 12. NAP finance GEF  Council  support  for  NAP  processes   through  LDCF  and  SCCF   Planning   Prepatory   acAviAes   ImplementaAon*   *  GEF  Council  support  for  these  acAviAes  unclear  at  this  Ame  
  13. 13. NAP Finance: Green  Climate  Fund:   •  Direct  and  enhanced  direct  access  are  potenAal  opAons   under  GCF:  lower  transacAon  costs  +  downward  financial   accountability.   •  GDF  access  modaliAes  in  process.     DomesAc  Sources   •  Can  decrease  dependency  on  fickle  donor  finance,  but   sAll  benefit  from  bilateral  funding  arrangements  
  14. 14. ation nt of lan Political economy context: Downward accountability n of ties for planning and implementation ct and s information sharing fa Adaptive institutions M&E agement strengthening between government, civil society, research and private sector actors Stakeholder   engagement     Capacity   building  
  15. 15. National Adaptation Plans (NAPs) and agriculture: A learning workshop
  16. 16. Key agencies to facilitate NAP integration and cross-sector planning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
  17. 17. NAP Barriers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
  18. 18. Thank you! Gabrielle Kissinger Principal, Lexeme Consulting
  19. 19. KENYA: Agriculture in National Adaptation Planning COP 19 Side Event The National Stadium - Cracow Room, Warsaw - Poland S M King’uyu Climate Change Secretariat Ministry of Environment, Water & Natural Resources, Kenya
  20. 20. Country status •  Agriculture Sector Development Strategy (ASDS) recognises the threat of climate change and the need to adapt. •  National Climate Change Response Strategy (NCCRS) and National Climate Change Action Plan (NCCAP) prepared through a comprehensive and inclusive process. •  Main NCCAP deliverable = national low carbon climate resilient development pathway that integrates adaptation, mitigation and sustainable development. •  Prioritisation of adaptation actions. •  Upgrading of adaptation actions in NCCAP into a NAP in progress. •  Some adaptation actions already synthesised and costed. •  Costing of remainder of actions to be undertaken. 13/10/2013   KENYA  -­‐  SMK   20  
  21. 21. Barriers and successes: SWOT STRENGTHS   •  Experience gained from NCCAP process. •  Broad adaptation actions identified. •  Dedicated TWG. •  Appointment by institutions: Sectoral ownership? •  Technical diversity of team. •  Representation from across the different stakeholder categories. Ø Stakeholder ownership. •  Tested approach to costing. •  Adaptation actions mainstreamed into MTP. WEAKNESSES   •  No  NAPA  experience.   •  Do  all  have  the  requisite  experience.   Ø How  to  deal  with  appointees  without   drive?   •  Is  representaAon  inclusive  enough?   •  Funding  the  implementaAon?   •  Baseline  data/info?   13/10/2013   KENYA  -­‐  SMK   OPPORTUNITIES   •  Learning from past mistakes/ experiences. Ø Examples of best practice and building on synergy. •  Some demonstrable interest from development partners. •  New governance dispensation - heating the iron while hot? Ø Further mainstreaming into planning at all levels of governance. Ø County integrated development plans. •  Political goodwill. THREATS   •  Stakeholders  who  desire  to   accomplish  too  fast?   •  Does  the  end  jusAfy  the  means?   Ø Which  is  more  important  than  the  other  -­‐   the  end  or  the  means?   •  Who  represents  who?   21  
  22. 22. Mul7-­‐stakeholder  approach   Mwananchi Development Partners NCCAP Media CSOs Private Sector Academia GoK § Stakeholders  are:   Ø Like  fish:    You  catch  them  at  their  own  terms,  not  on  the  fisher’s  terms!   Ø Like  eggs:    You  handle  them  with  care!  We  must  speak  their  language!   13/10/2013   KENYA  -­‐  SMK   22  
  23. 23. Integrated/Mul7-­‐sectoral  approach   13/10/2013   KENYA  -­‐  SMK   23  
  24. 24. Examples  from  MTP  2013-­‐2017   •  Foundations of the Economy and Society: . . . a strategy is in place for modernizing energy infrastructure network, increasing the share of energy generated from renewable energy sources, and providing energy that is affordable and reliable to businesses and homes. This will ensure that our energy supply is adequate and efficient in order to support increased use in manufacturing, agriculture, services, public facilities and households. •  Agriculture & Livestock: The MTP will give top priority to increased acreage under in irrigation in order to reduce the country’s dependence on rain fed agriculture. A total of 404,800 hectares will be put under irrigation. 13/10/2013   KENYA  -­‐  SMK   24  
  25. 25. Examples  from  MTP  2013-­‐2017   Drought Emergencies and Food Security •  Increase investment in irrigation to reduce the country’s dependence on rain-fed agriculture. •  Strategies to mechanize agriculture, revive cooperatives and farmers unions and subsidize farm inputs. •  Emphasis on value addition in the production and supply chain. Infrastructure •  Cheaper and adequate electricity; local and regional rail and road networks that provide safe, efficient and cost effective transport; •  Adequate water for households and industry; affordable quality housing and sustainable environmental management. •  Integrate the SDGs for the post 2015. 13/10/2013   KENYA  -­‐  SMK   25  
  26. 26. Thank you! 26   KENYA  -­‐  SMK   13/10/2013  
  27. 27. Ali Tauqueer Sheikh Asia Director, Climate and Development Knowledge Network (CDKN) CEO of LEAD Pakistan
  28. 28. Robert Zougmoré West Africa Regional Program Leader CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS)
  29. 29. CCAFS  SIDE  EVENT:       Agriculture  in   Na7onal  Adapta7on   Plans:  Experiences   and  Lessons  Learned