Advancing readiness to fast-track climate-smart agriculture in Africa


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Presentations by key speakers during a CCAFS, FAO, SACAU and other partners side event held in Bonn , Germany during #SBSTA 40

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Advancing readiness to fast-track climate-smart agriculture in Africa

  1. 1. Advancing readiness to fast-track climate smart agriculture in Africa By Manyewu Mutamba SACAU Background • The need to transform agriculture in Africa given CC • CC now a key area of focus for farmers and others • Strong collaboration with CCAFS, COMESA, UNECA, AGN • Greater recognition of need to involve farmers
  2. 2. Recognition of CSA • Increased appreciation of the need for action now – CSA • Major shift required in the way we farm • CSA focuses on key elements for farmers • Sustainable increase in Productivity • Increased resilience • Co-benefits were possibility
  3. 3. The challenge is rolling it out at scale • Key performance areas • Embrace technology, information • Time to move beyond the handhoe • Fix capacity limitations • Extension • Research • Innovative financing frameworks • Unlock private sector financing • Work with private sector • Target the youth
  4. 4. Young Farmers Clubs
  5. 5. Thank You
  6. 6. Fred Kossam Malawi AGN Coordinator on Issues Related to Agriculture 6/10/2014 13
  7. 7. INTRODUCTION  All Parties agree that agriculture is integral under UNFCCC (Art. 2 and 4.1 of the Convention).  The agriculture sector plays a critical role in food security, poverty reduction and economic growth (i.e., sustainable development).  Agriculture is most vulnerable to climate variability and climate change.  The sector is a large emitter of GHGs, responsible for around 14% of global emissions, and has significant potential to sequester .  Recognition of the interests of small and marginal farmers and their traditional knowledge and practices.  Special nature of agriculture - The link between adaptation and mitigation. 6/10/2014 14
  8. 8. Why Agriculture Agriculture holds the key to Africa’s sustainable and rural development. 80% small scale farmers directly or indirectly relying on rain-fed agriculture as a source of livelihood. Largely contribute to economic development  At least 80% of all projects identified in the NAPAs are in the agriculture sector and now
  9. 9. Reflection of Article 4 1. All Parties, taking into account their common but differentiated responsibilities and their specific national and regional development priorities, objectives and circumstances, shall: (c) Promote and cooperate in the development, application and diffusion, including transfer, of technologies, practices and processes that control, reduce or prevent anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol in all relevant sectors, including the energy, transport, industry, agriculture, forestry and waste management sectors; (e) Cooperate in preparing for adaptation to the impacts of climate change; develop and elaborate appropriate and integrated plans for coastal zone management, water resources and agriculture, and for the protection and rehabilitation of areas, particularly in Africa, affected by drought and desertification, as well as floods. 6/10/2014 16
  10. 10. HISTORY OF AGRICULTURE IN THE NEGOTIATIONS/1  COP 13: Bali Action Plan 1(b)(iv) – Cooperative sectoral approaches and sector specific actions to implement art. 4.1(c) – mitigation.  Pre-Copenhagen: Parties agreed on a text that recognized adaptation and mitigation.  Post-Copenhagen: Parties agreed to protect the agricultural text agreed upon in Copenhagen.  EU introduced bunker fuels as part of the equation.  Developing countries introduced the need to have a general framework as a preamble to sector specific work.  Attempts were made to enhance the scope of REDD+ to include agriculture.  Agriculture started featuring in NAMA submissions. 6/10/2014 17
  11. 11. HISTORY OF AGRICULTURE IN THE NEGOTIATIONS/2  COP16 - Cancun: Parties could not agree on the general framework and as a consequence no decision on agriculture.  COP17: Requested SBSTA to consider issues related to agriculture with the aim of exchanging views and invited parties and observer organizations to make submissions (2/CP17, para 75, 76).  SBSTA38 submission and mandated a in session workshop Warsaw 6/10/2014 18
  12. 12. Agriculture in Warsaw • In session Workshop in Warsaw with presentation from IPCC, FAO and Parties including AGN • SBSTA 40(June 2014) will consider the report of the workshop and submissions • Will determine a way forward
  13. 13. AREAS OF DIVERGENCE Sequencing between adaptation and mitigation. Application of the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities (CBDR) and Capabilities on the agricultural sector. Potential trade implications. 6/10/2014 20
  14. 14. Keys Outstanding Issues on Agriculture and Negotiations How to address issues of Agriculture under SBSTA? Should it be through a Work Program or otherwise? How to deal with mitigation in Agriculture under SBSTA? How to deal with the issues related to trade and CBDR? 6/10/2014 21
  15. 15. Key messages for Africa • Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice to undertake detailed and in-depth work on Agriculture and Climate Change consistent with its mandate that and provisions and principles of the convention. • Assessment of the state of scientific knowledge of climate change impacts on agriculture and food security, and on how to enhance the adaptation of agriculture to climate change impacts, while promoting rural development, and productivity of agricultural systems and food security. • Identification of innovative, efficient and state-of-the-art technologies and know-how for improved climate-resilient agricultural production; and advice on the ways and means of promoting the development and transfer of such technologies; • Assessment of capacity needs and support mechanisms to strengthen sub- national and national scientific programmes, international cooperation in research and development related to climate change and agriculture as well as supporting endogenous capacity-building in Africa
  16. 16. In Pipe line since 2013  Three institution ACPC, COMESA CCAF are supporting the AGN in preparing a Technical paper  Position Paper  These need to be ready early next year so that AGN internalise it. 6/10/2014 23
  17. 17.  End 6/10/2014 24
  18. 18. Country Climate-Smart Agriculture Readiness Frameworks Gabrielle Kissinger, Lexeme Consulting Side event: Advancing readiness to fast-track climate smart agriculture in Africa SBSTA – Bonn, Germany, 8 June 2014
  19. 19. CSA pathway • Clear on goals and directive • Adaptation/mitigation synergies • Work with existing institutional frameworks • Policy coherence • Build capacity for resilience
  20. 20. Policies included in CCAFS meta-synthesis Source:Planningclimateadaptationinagriculture.CCAFSReportNo.10
  21. 21. Agriculture sector policies attuned to CSA • Kenya, Rwanda, South Africa • Difficult to amend existing: Ghana: climate not in six policy objectives of agricultural policy (FASDEPII). Coordinating body has been appointed at the national level, no corresponding bodies exist at regional/local levels.
  22. 22. Adaptation strategies •National Adaptation Plans (NAPs) •National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs)
  23. 23. NAP integration with development and agric sector plans Ethiopia The CRGE strategy integrates economic growth, mitigation and adaptation concerns into a government wide development strategy under Prime Minister’s Office. Kenya NCCAP informed mainstreaming of CC into second Medium Term Plan (MTP 2013-2017) to implement Vision 2030. Mali New (2010) Environment and Sustainable Development Agency seeks to mainstream CC objectives into development polices, project, programmes. Tanzania The VP’s Office (in 2012), “Guidelines for Integrating Climate Change Adaptation into National Sectoral Policies, Plans and Programmes of Tanzania” Agriculture and NAPs: opportunities for mainstreaming adaptation into sectoral plans
  24. 24. Mitigation strategies • Low Emission Development Strategies (LEDS) or Low Carbon Development Strategy (LCDS) – Kenya’s National Climate Change Action Plan + integrate climate change in the Second Medium-Term Plan – Ethiopia: ambitious investment program in dams, hydropower development, irrigation, water management, and road building • Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMA) – Is a vehicle to implement LEDS
  25. 25. Agriculture: Changes in crop yields given increasing municipal and industrial and irrigation demands Ethiopia: Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change Source: World Bank (2010). Ethiopia - Economics of adaptation to climate change. Vol. 1.
  26. 26. Ethiopia: adaptation/mitigation synergies
  27. 27. Related policies: water and energy
  28. 28. Thank you! Gabrielle Kissinger Principal, Lexeme Consulting
  29. 29. Advancing readiness to fast-track climate smart agriculture in Africa SBSTA 40 Side Event 8 June, 2014 Henry Neufeldt World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) Reaching Millions of farmers with CSA in Africa; 5-6-7 NGO Network
  30. 30. What is the Global Alliance on Climate-Smart Agriculture? The Alliance for Climate Smart Agriculture is a voluntary coalition that will bring together governments, farmers, fishers and forest user groups, civil society, the private sector and research institutions to focus on the knowledge, investment and enabling environment required to make agriculture part of the solution to climate change, with a focus on supporting 2.5 billion people who rely on smallholder agriculture.
  31. 31. Roadmap to a Global Alliance on Climate-Smart Agriculture • Meetings of the CSA Alliance in The Hague (2010, Oct 2013), Hanoi (2012), Johannesburg (Dec 2013), Abu Dhabi (May 2014) • The African CSA Alliance Workshop 31 March to 2 April 2014 • Regional consultation focused on ‘enabling environment’ in Hanoi, 9-11 June • Next global CSA Alliance conference to be held in The Hague, 9-11 July • Launch of the Global Alliance on Climate-Smart Agriculture by UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon at the World Summit on Climate Change in New York, 23 September
  32. 32. Initiatives that could be shared at the Climate Change Summit • An African Climate-Smart Agriculture initiative is being designed by NEPAD and NGO partners to enable 25 million smallholder farmers to practice climate-smart agriculture by 2025 • The Climate and Clean Air Coalition’s (CCAC) Agriculture initiative with three focus areas (reducing methane release in livestock production and in rice-growing, as well as restricting black carbon production through open burning • The quality and timeliness of weather, climate & hydrological information for farmers • The “Adaptation for Smallholder Agriculture Programme” (ASAP) managed by IFAD as one of the existing initiatives implementing climate-smart agriculture
  33. 33. Partnerships for Scaling Climate-smart Agriculture (P4S) Hoogeveen
  34. 34. ResearchinDevelopment
  35. 35. 7 development partners using our approach for better programing 2 million farming households practicing CSA Map of the Investment Terrain Enhanced Web-portal Co- developed Analytic Tools Co-learning Partnerships
  36. 36. Developing a system for prioritizing climate-smart agriculture practices • CCAFS is currently compiling a database of CSA technologies and practices that exist around the world • Further research is needed to: • Develop relevant metrics for food security, adaption and mitigation, and provide key indicators for CSA and integration between datasets • Connect different social-ecological systems and relevant scales
  37. 37. Vision 25-25 Expansion of CSA in Africa
  38. 38. Optimizing CSA among its different components
  39. 39. Developing a system for prioritizing climate-smart agriculture practices
  40. 40. Farming systems of Africa (Garrity et al. 2012)
  41. 41. Outlook on funding opportunities for investment in CSA in Africa CCAFS Side Event on ‘Advancing readiness to fast-track climate smart agriculture in Africa’ Bonn, Germany, 8 June 2014, SBSTA 40 Evans Njewa MALAWI 6/10/2014 54
  42. 42. 1) The need for climate finance for agriculture  Q5 - How can countries mobilize climate finance and encourage private investment for agriculture and rural development at all levels and scales?  Potential funding sources for agricultural adaptation and mitigation activities are available both within and outside of the UNFCCC mechanisms.  Smallholder farmers often lack access to investments, knowledge and information. 6/10/2014 55
  43. 43. 2) Resources under the Convention  Article 4 paragraphs 3 – 10: Developed country Parties (Annex II Parties) shall provide financial resources to assist developing country Parties in implementing the Convention.  Article 11 of the Kyoto Protocol also recognizes this need 6/10/2014 56
  44. 44. 3) Resources under the Convention  The Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF)  The adaptation window of the Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF)  Adaptation Fund - almost all of the 18 Adaptation Fund projects by LDCs involve agriculture and food security in some way.  The Green Climate Fund 6/10/2014 57
  45. 45. 4) Potential sources outside of the Convention  The IFAD Adaptation for Smallholder Agriculture Programme (ASAP),  The Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR),  COMESA, ICRAF, NEPAD,World bank and FAO  The Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR)  ODA - a major source in Africa  The Strategic Climate Fund (SCF), by a consortium of multilateral development banks  The EU’s Global Climate Change Alliance (GCCA) 6/10/2014 58
  46. 46. Domestic investment  National government budgets or private sources - commercial lending, or contract farming.  Private investment through their Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) programs 6/10/2014 59
  47. 47. Other initiatives ◦ Results-based incentives, such as Payment for Environmental Services (PES), ◦ Microfinance institutions - crop insurance ◦ Carbon markets - US$43 – $58 m pa,AFOLU sector ◦ Public private partnerships (PPPs), E.G. the French PROPARCO, invested EUR 30 million in CDC Climat, ◦ American Carbon Registry (ACR), Climate Action Reserve (CAR) ◦ -Philanthropic funding - private foundations and international NGOs - Rockefeller Foundation, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, The Howard G. Buffett Foundation, CARE, Oxfam, Conservation International, are joining with national NGOs and farmer organizations to invest in climate-smart agriculture. 6/10/2014 60
  48. 48. Challenges -Tracking flows of funding may be complex  Conditionality  Double counting  Several tiers of disbursement  Uncertainty regarding international public funding sources.  Access to credit - a substantial barrier  Loans, grants, or credit guarantees???  Distinction between adaptation and mitigation activities is often unclear  Standardization of data –bundling of forestry and fisheries 6/10/2014 61