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Adaptation processes in agriculture and food security: Insights from evaluating behavioral changes in West Africa

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Adaptation processes in agriculture and food security: Insights from evaluating behavioral changes in West Africa

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Adaptation processes in agriculture and food security: Insights from evaluating behavioral changes in West Africa

  1. 1. PROGRAMME AFRIQUE CENTRALE ET OCCIDENTALE (PACO)PROGRAMME AFRIQUE CENTRALE ET OCCIDENTALE (PACO) Adaptation processes in agriculture and food security: Insights from evaluating behavioral changes in West Africa Somda Jacques*, Zougmoré Robert, Sawadogo Issa, Bationo B. André, Sanou Josias, Barry Silamana, Buah Saaka, Abass Amadou Tougiani. * Presenter. Email: jacques.somda@iucn.org
  2. 2. PROGRAMME AFRIQUE CENTRALE ET OCCIDENTALE (PACO) 2 I. Searching for adaptation metrics • To achieve the sustainable development goals, adaptation to climate change and lower emission intensities per development output will be necessary. • But how can we ascertain that the development outputs are effectively sustainable and that the human and natural systems are adapted to climate change? – If Indicators to measure progress towards mitigation seem straightforward: Reduced quantity of the greenhouse gas emission – Indicators to measure progress towards adaptation are still to be properly defined, because of overlap between adaptation and development
  3. 3. PROGRAMME AFRIQUE CENTRALE ET OCCIDENTALE (PACO) 3 II. Adaptation refers to both process and condition • Adaptation is defined as adjustments (process) in ecological, social, or economic systems (condition) in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli and their effects or impacts. • Yet, current adaptation M&E has put more emphasis on condition than process, leading to development outcomes mistaken for adaptation outcomes • We argue that if development outcomes are not generated through “new” capacity, that is adaptive capacity;  Then it is hard to use the development outcomes to measure progress toward adaptation. • Therefore, the should be traceability between adaptive capacity and adaptation outcomes
  4. 4. PROGRAMME AFRIQUE CENTRALE ET OCCIDENTALE (PACO) 4 III. Why behavioral changes are important in adaptation process M&E? • Behavioral theory help understanding how adaptation conditions are constructed within a community. – Building on adaptive capacity, the underlying variable of adaptation to climate change, behavioral theory showed potentials to elucidate determinants that influence community propensity or ability to adapt. • Development outcomes are not always climate-friendly – Determinants of adaptive capacity relate to the economic, social, institutional, and technological conditions that facilitate or constrain the development and deployment of adaptive measures leading to adaptation outcomes. • “Adaptive” behavioral changes as intermediary indicators of adaptation – Linking “adaptive” behavioral changes to development outcomes will ensure proper design of robust adaptation metrics.
  5. 5. PROGRAMME AFRIQUE CENTRALE ET OCCIDENTALE (PACO) 5 III. Methods – Locations
  6. 6. PROGRAMME AFRIQUE CENTRALE ET OCCIDENTALE (PACO) 6 III’. Methods – conceptualising behavioral changes
  7. 7. PROGRAMME AFRIQUE CENTRALE ET OCCIDENTALE (PACO) 7 III’’. Methods – The participatory M&E plans Criteria for collecting outcome harvesting Burkina Faso Ghana Niger Intentional domains of behavioural changes D1 : Partnership D2 : Knowledge D3 : Practices D4 : Organization D1 : Partnership D2 : Knowledge D3 : Practices D4: Food security D1: Partnership D2: Knowledge D3: Food security Periodicity of data collection Every six months Every six months Every six months Behavioural changes collection methods Focus group and Individual discussion Focus group and Individual discussion Focus group and Individual discussion Types of behavioural change to collect Individual and collective behaviours Individuals and collectives behaviours Individual and collective behaviours Selection technique for the most significant change Iterative voting Iterative voting Iterative voting Number of changes stories collected (experimental) 2 collective changes (men/women group) 34 individual changes (men and women farmers) 2 collective changes (men/women group) 12 individual changes (men and women farmers) 2 collective changes (men and women) 16 individual changes (men and women farmers)
  8. 8. PROGRAMME AFRIQUE CENTRALE ET OCCIDENTALE (PACO) 8 IV. Results – Changes in knowledge and practices ((% of respondents) Domains of changes/attributes Burkina Ghana Niger Men Women Men Women Men Women D1. Changes in knowledge A1. Knowledge about agricultural techniques with respect to climate change 84,21 60,00 100 100 100 100 A2. Knowledge on how to implement on- farm assisted natural regeneration techniques 57,89 46,67 - - 100 100 A3. Knowledge of trees planting and utilization 36,84 62,50 33,33 33,33 10 16,67 D2. Changes in agricultural practices A1. Agricultural practices (use of improved seeds, row planting, compost application, fertilizers use, etc.) 57,89 73,33 100 100 100 83,33 A2. Practicing on-farm assisted natural regeneration of trees 5,26 13,33 33,33 33,33 100 83,33 A3. Planting tree 26,32 40,00 - - - -
  9. 9. PROGRAMME AFRIQUE CENTRALE ET OCCIDENTALE (PACO) 9 IV. Results- changes in organization, partnership, access to productive assets and food security (% of respondents) Domains of changes/attributes Burkina Ghana Niger Men Women Men Women Men Women D3. Organizational changes A.1. Relationship among farmers 36,84 6,67 16,67 16,67 - - D4. Changes in partnering A1. In-community collaboration (exchange of information, services and goods) 57,89 66,67 66,67 66,67 60 33,33 D5. Access to productive resources (on- farm trees, etc.) A1. Access to on-farm and medicinal trees 31,58 80,00 - - - 16,67 D6. change in food security A1. Diversity of diets and early harvest from early maturing crops - 13,33 50 - - 83,33
  10. 10. PROGRAMME AFRIQUE CENTRALE ET OCCIDENTALE (PACO) 10 V. Lessons learned toward developing adaptation metrics • Existence of various patterns of new behavior: Stakeholders learned the various arrays of changes in farmers’ behavior, particularly the adaptation-relevant behavior. • New pattern of behaviors need maintenance: The results also suggest that initiating new patterns of behaviors may bring new challenges to farmers, individuals or enterprises. • Adaptation-related metrics from behavioral changes stories: From the stories of change, it is possible to identify what metrics are most suitable to measure progress in adaptation. – In fact, adaptation metrics should not be defined in isolation from changes in farmers’ behavior, – Knowing domains where behavioral changes are taking place because of adaptation activity helps evaluators to trace the adaptation contribution out of the development outcome.
  11. 11. PROGRAMME AFRIQUE CENTRALE ET OCCIDENTALE (PACO) 11 V. Concluding remarks • Adaption processes are subject to a number of biophysical, social and psychological influences: Future adaptation M&E approaches, tools and framework needs to examine these at the community and/or ecosystem levels. • Focusing on one influence over the others will not help communities, donors and development agencies to effectively and efficiently adapt to climate change effects. • Instead, balancing approaches from social and biophysical sciences has potentials to strengthen both the human and environmental dimensions needed for adaptation process. • Behavioral science can contribute to conceptualize models that include economic, technical, and regulatory considerations as predictors of the effectiveness of adaptation policies or interventions
  12. 12. PROGRAMME AFRIQUE CENTRALE ET OCCIDENTALE (PACO) 12 Acknowledgements Funding sources Technical Partners: National agricultural research Systems Outreach

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