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A gender-transformative approach to climate-smart agriculture

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Review of CCAFS’ contribution to poverty reduction, enhanced environmental resilience, improved food security, human health and nutrition for rural women.

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A gender-transformative approach to climate-smart agriculture

  1. 1. A gender-transformative approach to climate-smart agriculture
  2. 2. • 79% of economically active women in developing countries report agriculture as their primary economic activity • Rural women play an increasing role in smallholder agriculture as males migrate to urban centres • They have less access than men to productive resources: finances, assets, energy, information, services • Women in 2/3 of countries globally report being food-insecure • Closing the gender gap will increase yields by 20-30% and raise agricultural outputs by 2.5 – 4 %, reducing hungry by 12-17% The gender gap in agriculture: Fewer resources, greater workload
  3. 3. • Globally, and with few exceptions, rural women fare worse than rural men, and urban women and men, on every gender and development indicator for which data are available - FAO • More dependent /closer to natural resources • Natural disasters and subsequent impacts tend to kill more women than men and women at earlier age than men • Climate change will exacerbate existing gender inequalities - IPCC The gender gap in climate change: Women are more vulnerable
  4. 4. • Gender differences exist in vulnerabilities and capacities to deal with climate change impacts • Women and men are changing cropping practices in response to climate variability, with different impacts on access to and control of the income from crops, as well as workloads • Women are less likely to buy micro-insurance if risk is low-probability, while men are likely to buy more units of insurance (Bangladesh) • Women’s participation in REDD+ decision making is very low (Vietnam) • Women’s resilience strategies and local environmental knowledge are valuable resources for recovery and adaptation • Women may be less able to adapt because of financial or resource constraints and less access to information and extension
  5. 5. CCAFS Gender and Social Inclusion Flagship • Goal: to ensure that rural women benefit from CCAFS’ contribution to poverty reduction, enhanced environmental resilience, improved food security, human health and nutrition. • How: undertake research to:  inform, catalyze and target climate-smart agriculture solutions to women and other vulnerable groups  increase the control of women and youth over productive assets and resources, and  promote their participation in decision making  address the use of technologies to increase women’s production, improve their livelihoods and wellbeing, and decrease their workloads
  6. 6. • CSA can be beneficial for women – when they have access to information on CSA, they are just as likely (if not more so) than men to adopt the practices • However, barriers to adaptation exist: increased work loads; lower access to information and resources; sociocultural norms • Most rapid uptake of climate-resilient farming was among women whose husbands were away and not making day-to-day decisions (Nyando) Gender and climate smart agriculture: CCAFS Findings
  7. 7. Empowering effects of CSA
  8. 8. Women rice farmers in South Vietnam
  9. 9. CSA Technologies: Gender gaps and opportunities
  10. 10. CSA Technologies: Gender gaps and opportunities
  11. 11. Gender differences in agroforestry in Nicaragua
  12. 12. Activity Participation Who devotes more labor? Man Woman Pasture sowing and management Yes No Men Fertilizer and herbicide application Yes No Men Caring for animals Yes Yes Men Cut pasture Yes No Men Rotation of animals Yes No Men Managing and cleaning the equipment and utensils Yes Yes Men Feeding the animals Yes Yes Men Curing the animals and helping with birthing Yes No Men Weighing the animals and keeping records Yes No Men Milking Yes Yes Both Processing milk (cheese, cream, yogurt production) Yes Yes Women Selling animals Yes No Men Selling meat Yes Yes Men Selling processed milk products Yes Yes Women Men’s and women’s participation and labor input variations in livestock production in Los Chiles, Costa Rica (Arora and Twyman, 2017)
  13. 13. Gender and CSA Transformation: A Framework Global National Community Household Individual: ♂ ♀ Policy&institutional change CSAimplementation Building mechanisms to engender finance Promoting women’s leadership and decision in policy & governance at all levels Closing the gender gap with Information, institutions and services CSA, gender and social inclusion ( hypothesis: Equitable decision making improves women’s assets and empowerment) Pillars of Gender Transformation in CSA Agency and opportunitie s Technology and innovation for gender transformati onAccess to & control over resources Institutional Structures Field-based evidence on what works for gender equality and women’s empowerment
  14. 14. Thank you

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