Understanding Memory By: Clare Hedlund

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Understanding Memory By: Clare Hedlund

  1. 1. Understanding Memory Clare Hedlund EDCI 500 October 10, 2008
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Cognitive Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Information Processing System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strategies for learning and teaching </li></ul>
  3. 3. Cognitive Perspective <ul><li>“ Knowledge is learned, and changes in knowledge make changes in behavior” (Woolfolk, 2007, p. 248) </li></ul><ul><li>Humans are active participants in mental processes, which can be studied scientifically </li></ul><ul><li>Different than Behavioral Perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviors are learned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People are passively influenced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> (Woolfolk, 2007, p. 248) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Information Processing System <ul><li>Sensory Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perception – information is assigned meaning and sent to working memory (Woolfolk, 2007, p. 251) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Working Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information is either recycled in working memory to remain immediately available or combined with existing knowledge in long term memory and is learned </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Long-term Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge is stored and retrieved for use </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Working Memory – “Workbench” <ul><li>3 Parts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Executive – attention and processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phonological Loop – rehearse words and sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visuospatial Sketchpad – manipulate images </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Retaining Info in the Working Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance rehearsal – repeating info so that it remains available in working memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elaborative rehearsal – moves info to long-term memory by connecting new info with existing knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Woolfolk, 2007, pp.254-255) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Long-term Memory <ul><li>Knowledge is permanently stored </li></ul><ul><li>More time to input but capacity is unlimited </li></ul><ul><li>Contents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Declarative Knowledge – “knowing that” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedural Knowledge – “knowing how to do something” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conditional Knowledge – “knowing when and why” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> (Woolfolk, 2007, pp. 257-258) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Storing, Retrieving and Forgetting <ul><li>Storing and Retrieving </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elaboration – connecting new information with existing information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization – organized information is easier to learn and remember </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Context – environment and context is learned with information and so can help recall information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forgetting – information is lost through interference or time decay </li></ul><ul><li>(Woolfolk, 2007, pp. 263-265) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Teaching and Memory <ul><li>To get students to learn </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach students to focus on important information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make connections between new information and existing knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeat and review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organize material and present it clearly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Woolfolk, 2007, p. 266) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. More Strategies for Teaching and Learning <ul><ul><li>Lessons are more meaningful when using language familiar to students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use visual aids to get the point across </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain and model memory strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mnemonic Devices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chucking – grouping bits of info together to make larger bits—can remember more </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributive practice – intermittently over a period of time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Woolfolk, 2007, pp. 256,269-273) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. References <ul><li>Woolfolk, A. (2007). Educational Psychology . Boston: Pearson Education. </li></ul>

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