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Réseau Social et Droit en France

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Les Réseaux Sociaux font désormais partie des outils largement adoptés par des pans entiers de la société française. mais qu'en est-il de leur situation au niveau du droit français. cette présentation de Benoît LAHARY a été faite lors de la soirée des réseaux sociaux le 16 juin 2011.

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Réseau Social et Droit en France

  1. 1. Réseaux Sociaux Numériques & Droit Benoît Lahary
  2. 2. Sommaire <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Lois encadrant les Réseaux Sociaux </li></ul><ul><li>Droit à la vie privée, Droit d’auteur, LCEN La loi pour la confiance dans l'économie numérique, droit du travail </li></ul><ul><li>Visibilité de l’utilisateur : Aire Privée/aire Publique </li></ul><ul><li>Cas concret </li></ul><ul><li>Vigilance </li></ul>
  3. 3. Préliminaires <ul><li>Il s'agit ici des &quot;Réseaux Sociaux Numériques&quot; (que nous notons RS@) licites. </li></ul><ul><li>Un RS@ n'est plus la présence sur Internet d'un &quot;Réseau Social Physique&quot; (que nous notons  RS). </li></ul><ul><li>Avant les RS@ actuels, il y a eu des communautés numériques en nombre et de grande taille, en France: voir l'époque du Minitel. Mais, les choses ont changé, les frontières explosé, les échelles enflé. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>L'espace RS@ n'est pas une friche juridique. Les lois réglementant le domaine de l'Internet sont applicables aux réseaux sociaux numériques. Leur réelle efficacité restent néanmoins à démontrer. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Dispositif général <ul><li>Il est à 2 niveaux: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Le premier spécifique au Web </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Le second, le cadre des faits: civil, travail, pénal etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Les RS@ n’ont pas de frontières, le droit en a </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Droit américain pour FACEBOOK avec particulier suivant le pays </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Les lois encadrant les RS@ <ul><li>CNIL </li></ul><ul><li>LCEN : La loi pour la confiance dans l'économie numérique </li></ul><ul><li>LOPPSI 2 : Volet cybercriminalité </li></ul><ul><li>Droit d’auteur </li></ul>
  7. 7. Droit du respect de la vie privée <ul><li>Toute personne a droit au respect de sa vie privée et familiale, de son domicile et de sa correspondance </li></ul><ul><li>Attention: chacun gère l'accès à sa propre image et l'autorisation ou non de l'utiliser pour la publicité. </li></ul><ul><li>Droit à l'image </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Définie en France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lié à la vie privée (Jurisprudence CEDH Cours Européenne des Droits de l’Homme) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Droit du respect de la vie privée <ul><li>CNIL: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Déclaration des fichiers applicable en France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecueil à l'application: les données sont-elles physiquement en France ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Droit de regard sur les données personnelles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elle peut intervenir pour faire modifier ou supprimer des données personnelles sur FACEBOOK en cas de difficulté </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Droits d'auteur <ul><li>Creative Common (international) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ses propres créations: de nombreux sites, avec des fonctions de RS permettent le partage de ses créations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analogue à la licence GPL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limitation possible comme interdire un usage commercial </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Droits d'auteur <ul><li>HADOPI (Loi française) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Haute Autorité pour la diffusion des œuvres et la protection des droits sur internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S’insère dans le Code de la propriété intellectuelle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Missions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>le développement de l’offre légale et d’observer l’utilisation licite et illicite des œuvres sur Internet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>de protéger les œuvres à l’égard des atteintes aux droits qui leur sont attachés : « réponse graduée » </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>de réguler l’usage des mesures techniques de protection DRM </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. LCEN La loi pour la confiance dans l'économie numérique <ul><li>Les RS@ ont les mêmes obligations que les FAI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contenus illicites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respect du droit d’auteur </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Obligation de conserver les données identifiant les personnes mettant du contenu en ligne pendant 1 an (Décret 2011-216 du 25/02/2011) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quid de le sécurité sur ces données critiques </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Réseaux Sociaux Numériques & Droit du Travail <ul><li>Il peut exister une tolérance: idem téléphone et Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>Attention: exécution du Contrat de Travail </li></ul><ul><li>Chartre d’utilisation </li></ul><ul><li>Mesures de filtrage d’accès par interdiction d’accès : FACEBOOK, RS@ de rencontre </li></ul>
  13. 13. Visibilité de l'utilisateur : Aire privée/Aire publique <ul><li>C'est un paramétrage personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Définir le Cercle « d'amis » </li></ul><ul><li>Utilisation de plusieurs profils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Famille </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collègues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Restriction de l’accès aux données suivant les profils </li></ul>
  14. 14. Cas d’espèce <ul><li>Être dans l'aire privée alors qu'on est au travail : difficile à légiférer spécifiquement </li></ul><ul><li>Appréciation au cas par cas </li></ul>
  15. 15. Cas concret : Affaire «le club des néfastes» <ul><li>Contexte : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Un groupe de salariés « club des néfastes » veut mener la vie impossible au N+1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Un membre du groupe ouvre l’accès aux « amis d’amis » </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Par ce biais la direction est informée des propos </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Décision du Tribunal de Boulogne 19/11/2010 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>L’ouverture de la page « aux amis d’amis » permettaient accès notamment aux salariés et anciens salariés de l’entreprise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Les propos dépassent la sphère privée </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Au-delà de ce jugement <ul><li>Appel ,: une correspondance échangée entre un « nombre restreint de destinataires » connus personnellement par l’auteur ou les auteurs a un caractère privé (CA Paris, 11e ch. Corr., 2 juillet 2008). </li></ul><ul><li>Cassation : les propos publics comme ceux échangés entre des personnes n’étant pas liées entre elles par une communauté d’intérêt (Cass. Crim 24 janvier 1995 ; Cass.civ. 23 septembre 1999). </li></ul>
  17. 17. Vigilance <ul><li>À ne pas restreindre un espace de liberté d'expression </li></ul><ul><li>À négliger l'importance de la technologie: faire la part du public et du privé </li></ul><ul><li>À vite condamner un outil plébiscité par des pans entiers de la société humaine alors que les employeurs adoptent RS@ Entreprise </li></ul>
  18. 18. Questions/Réponses <ul><li>Merci pour votre attention </li></ul><ul><li>Plus: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://cgcatos.org </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul>

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