Presentation 10


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  • Presentation 10

    1. 1. Female Reproductive Terms Cynthia Gaughan
    2. 2. Endometrium• Innermost layer of the uterus- a mucosal lining• When fertilization of the ovum occurs, the embryo is implanted in the endometrium.• If fertilization does not occur, the lining is shed. This is known as menstruation.
    3. 3. Layers of Endometrium• Stratum functionalis- undergoes cyclic changes in response to ovarian hormone levels, is shed during menstruation• Stratum basalis- forms new functionalis after menstruation, does not respond to ovarian hormones
    4. 4. Endometriosis• A condition in which the uterine lining grows outside the uterus- can occur in the pelvic and abdominal cavities• Can cause abnormal uterine or rectal bleeding, dysmenorrhea, pelvic pain, and infertility• Treatment includes birth control hormones, NSAIDs, and surgery
    5. 5. Gestation• The length of time from conception to birth• Approximately 38 weeks (266 days) for humans
    6. 6. Stages of Gestation• Pre-embryonic • First two weeks • From fertilization and creation of zygote to implantation• Embryonic • Weeks three through eight• Fetal • Weeks nine through thirty-eight
    7. 7. Embryonic Stage• Week 3- Central nervous system begins to form, connective tissue forms (mesenchyme)• Week 4- Head and jaw become visible, arm and leg buds form• Week 5- Head enlarges, digital rays appear• Week 6- Internal organs begin to form• Weeks 7 & 8- Neck is formed, eyeballs and eyelids form, nostrils are plugged
    8. 8. Fetal Stage• Weeks 9-12 -Head and body same size, ears appear, fetal respiration begins, by week 12 can differentiate sex• Weeks 13-16 - Human features appear, heartbeat detected• Weeks 17-20 - Fetus now in fetal position, fetal movement detected, body in proportion• Weeks 21-25 - Substantial weight gain
    9. 9. • Weeks 26-29 - Eyes are open, testes descend, head of fetus directed toward cervix (vertex position)• Weeks 30-38 - Average length from crown to buttocks is 14”, average weight is 7.5 pounds. Ready for birth
    10. 10. Menopause• The point when ovulation and menstruation cease• Generally determined to be one year after last menstrual cycle• Occurs, on average, between ages 40 and 55• Estrogen production declines
    11. 11. Common Symptoms of Menopause Many of these symptoms occur duringperimenopause- the years before menopause• Hot flashes/ night sweats• Osteoporosis• Irritability/ depression/ memory lapse• Fatigue/ trouble sleeping• Vaginal dryness
    12. 12. Treatments for Menopause• Hormone replacement therapy- for hot flashes• Low-dose antidepressants- for mood disorders• Bisphosphorates- for osteoporosis• Vaginal estrogen- for vaginal dryness