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Three processes of memory


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Three processes of memory

  1. 1. Three Processes of Memory<br />Encoding, Storage, Retrieval<br />
  2. 2. How does a Computer store and access files (memories) ?<br /> - Convert file to necessary format<br /> - Encoding<br />- Save file in appropriate folder or file<br /> - Storage<br /><ul><li>Access specific file and bring to screen
  3. 3. Retrieval</li></li></ul><li>Encoding<br />The translation of information into a form it can be stored<br />(i.e. .doc, .pdf, etc.)<br /><ul><li>We receive info in a physical form, when we encode we convert that physical stimulus into psychological formats that can be mentally represented
  4. 4. Write the letter’s “OTTFFSSENT” on a sheet of paper
  5. 5. Take thirty seconds to memorize, then recite</li></li></ul><li>Three types of Encoding<br />Visual Codes<br />Form a mental picture of information<br />“photograph”<br />- Acoustic Codes<br /> -records information in memory as a sequence of sounds<br />-Semantic Codes<br /> - represents info in terms of its meaning<br />
  6. 6. Semantic Codes<br />“Semantic” – relating to meaning<br />Give meaning to the information you are trying to memorize<br />What are some different methods to use semantic codes?<br />
  7. 7. Storage<br />The maintenance of encoded information over a period of time<br />Closely related to encoding strategies. Once we encode info we need to “do” something with it to remember it<br />Maintenance rehearsal- Repeating info over and over to keep from forgetting<br />Example?<br />The more time spent rehearsing, the longer the memory will be stored<br />
  8. 8. Storage<br />Elaborative rehearsal – Make it meaningful by relating info to what one already knows<br />Widely used in education. How do your teachers use elaborative rehearsal?<br />
  9. 9. Organizational Systems<br />Think of your mind as a vast filing cabinet with organized with varied folders for specific info<br /><ul><li>Think of your “My Documents” folder on your computer
  10. 10. Files/Info is stored according to common themes and features
  11. 11. How does elaborative rehearsal try to “activate” certain folders?
  12. 12. Filing errors occur when we inaccurately classify info into the wrong category</li></li></ul><li>Retrieval<br />Locating stored info and returning it to conscious thought; much like accessing computer files<br />Write the List of letters from before<br />How did you “retrieve” the info?<br />
  13. 13. Context and State Dependent Memories<br />Context-dependent memories – memories that are retrieved due to a specific context<br /> - Context –the situation one was in when they first had the experience being remembered<br />Examples?<br /><ul><li>Swim-Team Study
  14. 14. Test-Room Study
  15. 15. Witnesses for Police</li></li></ul><li>State Dependent Memory<br />Memories that are retrieved because the mood in which the were originally encoded is re-created<br />Gordon Bower (1991) used hypnosis to prove this<br />Not only feelings play a role, but states of consciousness do too. (Atkinson et al., 1996)<br />
  16. 16. Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon<br />Memories are difficult to retrieve when they are incomplete or disorganized<br />Also called “ the feeling of knowing experience”<br />