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Macos vpri7 14final

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A look back at the MACOS, Man A Course of Study project, an American humanities education program that was popular in the 1960's and 70's. It was based on the theories of Jerome Bruner, including inquiry teaching and learning, spiral curriculum, discovery learning, constructivist teaching and learning.

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Macos vpri7 14final

  1. 1. Saving MACOS (Man: A Course of Study) Lessons Learned & Future Work Cathleen Galas July 2014 Viewpoints Research Institute
  2. 2. Outline of Presentation • US Historic Background – Post WW II – Post Sputnik • Education Reform 1960’s – Jerome Bruner – MACOS • Theories of learning (inquiry discovery, constructivist, spiral) • Socio-Anthropologic Curriculum • Former Teacher and Student Comments • Controversy • Looking back at MACOS, the controversy, effects on education, Where do we go from here? • Current US Education Reform Efforts – Criticisms – Common Core, Testing and Assessment – Ed research studies by author– Whyville, River City, Galef SS on Slavery, Discovery of New World • Questions Remaining
  3. 3. US Historic Background Post WWII Post Sputnik 1960’s
  4. 4. Science: The Endless Frontier "New frontiers of the mind are before us, and if they are pioneered with the same vision, boldness, and drive with which we have waged this war we can create a fuller and more fruitful employment and a fuller and more fruitful life."-- FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT November 17, 1944
  5. 5. Roosevelt to Vannevar Bush: “What can the Government do now and in the future to aid research activities by public and private organizations.”
  6. 6. President Roosevelt to Vannevar Bush Office of Scientific Research and Development November 17, 1944 1. Make known our war effort contributions to scientific knowledge
  7. 7. President Roosevelt to Vannevar Bush Office of Scientific Research and Development November 17, 1944 1. Make known our war effort contributions to scientific knowledge. 2. Fight the war on disease by supporting medicine and related sciences.
  8. 8. President Roosevelt to Vannevar Bush Office of Scientific Research and Development November 17, 1944 1. Make known our war effort contributions to scientific knowledge. 2. Fight the war on disease by supporting medicine and related sciences. 3. Aid public and private research.
  9. 9. President Roosevelt to Vannevar Bush Office of Scientific Research and Development November 17, 1944 1. Make known our war effort contributions to scientific knowledge. 2. Fight the war on disease by supporting medicine and related sciences. 3. Aid public and private research. 4. Discover and develop scientific talent.
  10. 10. Response to Roosevelt 1945 Dr. Vannevar Bush, Director of the Office of Scientific Research and Development, responded to Roosevelt with the report, “Science the Endless Frontier”.
  11. 11. For the War Against Disease • The responsibility for basic research in medicine and the underlying sciences, so essential to progress in the war against disease, falls primarily upon the medical schools and universities.
  12. 12. For the War Against Disease • The responsibility for basic research in medicine and the underlying sciences, so essential to progress in the war against disease, falls primarily upon the medical schools and universities. • If we are to maintain the progress in medicine which has marked the last 25 years, the Government should extend financial support to basic medical research in the medical schools and in universities.
  13. 13. For Our National Security • It is essential that the civilian scientists continue in peacetime …. best be done through a civilian-controlled organization
  14. 14. For Our National Security • It is essential that the civilian scientists continue in peacetime …. best be done through a civilian-controlled organization • the clear power to initiate military research which will supplement and strengthen that carried on directly under the control of the Army and Navy.
  15. 15. And for the Public Welfare • Basic scientific research is scientific capital and to increase scientific capital: –Train many men and women in science. –Strengthen the centers of basic research which are principally the colleges, universities, and research institutes.
  16. 16. And for the Public Welfare • Basic scientific research is scientific capital and to increase scientific capital: –Train many men and women in science. –Strengthen the centers of basic research which are principally the colleges, universities, and research institutes. • Provide for vigorous applied research both in Government and in industry
  17. 17. And for the Public Welfare • Basic scientific research is scientific capital and to increase scientific capital: – Train many men and women in science. – Strengthen the centers of basic research which are principally the colleges, universities, and research institutes. • Provide for vigorous applied research both in Government and in industry • Modify the procedures for recruiting, classifying, and compensating scientific personnel...
  18. 18. And for the Public Welfare • Basic scientific research is scientific capital and to increase scientific capital: – Train many men and women in science. – Strengthen the centers of basic research which are principally the colleges, universities, and research institutes. • Provide for vigorous applied research both in Government and in industry • Modify the procedures for recruiting, classifying, and compensating scientific personnel... • Increase the flow of scientific knowledge through support of basic research
  19. 19. And for the Public Welfare • Basic scientific research is scientific capital and to increase scientific capital: – Train many men and women in science. – Strengthen the centers of basic research which are principally the colleges, universities, and research institutes. • Provide for vigorous applied research both in Government and in industry • Modify the procedures for recruiting, classifying, and compensating scientific personnel... • Increase the flow of scientific knowledge through support of basic research • Aid in the development of scientific talent.
  20. 20. And for the Public Welfare • Basic scientific research is scientific capital and to increase scientific capital: – Train many men and women in science. – Strengthen the centers of basic research which are principally the colleges, universities, and research institutes. • Provide for vigorous applied research both in Government and in industry • Modify the procedures for recruiting, classifying, and compensating scientific personnel... • Increase the flow of scientific knowledge through support of basic research • Aid in the development of scientific talent. • Create a permanent Science Advisory Board
  21. 21. WE MUST RENEW OUR SCIENTIFIC TALENT The training of a scientist is a long and expensive process… If ability, and not the circumstance of family fortune, determines who shall receive higher education in science, then we shall be assured of constantly improving quality at every level of scientific activity.
  22. 22. A PROGRAM FOR ACTION by Vannevar Bush • The Government should accept new responsibilities for promoting the flow of new scientific knowledge and the development of scientific talent in our youth. – Undergraduate scholarships – Graduate fellowships
  23. 23. A PROGRAM FOR ACTION by Vannevar Bush • The Government should accept new responsibilities for promoting the flow of new scientific knowledge and the development of scientific talent in our youth. – Undergraduate scholarships – Graduate fellowships • I recommend that a new agency for these purposes be established. Such an agency should be composed of persons of broad interest and experience, having an understanding of the peculiarities of scientific research and scientific education.
  24. 24. A PROGRAM FOR ACTION • The Government should accept new responsibilities for promoting the flow of new scientific knowledge and the development of scientific talent in our youth. – Undergraduate scholarships – Graduate fellowships • I recommend that a new agency for these purposes be established. Such an agency should be composed of persons of broad interest and experience, having an understanding of the peculiarities of scientific research and scientific education. (Creation of NSF)
  25. 25. Post WWII: Continuing Debate about Quality of Education • Admiral Hyman Rickover and Arthur Bestor became critics of John Dewey’s ideas and progressive education. • Critics of education wanted back to fundamentals, back to basics, back to drill and memorization, and back to facts was pushed as reform. • (Cremin, 1961; Ravitch, 1983).
  26. 26. Soviet Union launches Sputnik Спу́тник-1 • October 4, 1957 • First artificial Earth satellite
  27. 27. Post-Sputnik • Sputnik highlighted the fact that the Soviet Union had beaten the US into space • The launch made it clear that the Soviets had the technology to launch nuclear bombs at the US. • The US responded to the security threat by targeting education An illustrated post card celebrating the launches of Sputnik I and II, in 1957. The card reads: 4 October, the USSR launched Earth's first artificial satellite. 3 November, the USSR launched Earth's second artificial satellite. • http://foreignpolicyblogs.com/2011/10/07/54- years-after-sputnik-where-do-things-stand/
  28. 28. 353 Days After Sputnik November 21, 1957: The President’s Science Advisory Committee is created November 7, 1957: President Eisenhower appoints James R. Killian as the nation’s first Science Advisor November 3, 1957: Sputnik-II launched October 4, 1957: Sputnik-I launched
  29. 29. 353 Days After Sputnik March 5, 1958: House establishes committee to create civilian space agency February 7, 1958: Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency established February 6, 1958: Senate establishes Special Committee on Space and Aeronautics. Senator Lyndon B. Johnson named Chairman January 31, 1958: Explorer-I launched
  30. 30. 353 Days After Sputnik October 1, 1958: NASA begins to develop a human space exploration program September 2, 1958: President Eisenhower signs National Defense Education Act, providing funds for math and science education July 29, 1958: President Eisenhower signs National Aeronautics and Space Administration Act April 2, 1958: President Eisenhower and Congress strengthen and expand National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics http://foreignpolicyblogs.com/2011/10/07/54-years-after-sputnik-where-do-things-stand/
  31. 31. Sputnik Education Crisis • Sputnik made clear to the American public that it was in the national interest to change education, especially mathematics and science. • public demand for a federal response in funding was unusually high • Congress passed the National Defense Education Act in 1958--an infusion of more than a billion dollars.
  32. 32. Funding Impact • Congress increased the National Science Foundation (NSF) appropriation for 1959 to $134 million, almost $100 million higher than the year before. • By 1968, the NSF budget stood at nearly $500 million.
  33. 33. Classroom Impact • In classrooms, educational tools began to change.
  34. 34. Classroom Impact • In classrooms, educational tools began to change. • Lab kits and overhead projectors were added, and educational films became part of the curriculum.
  35. 35. Classroom Impact • In classrooms, educational tools began to change. • Lab kits and overhead projectors were added, and educational films became part of the curriculum. • Social reform efforts led to the equalization of access to education and the creation of new courses to prepare children to become effective citizens.
  36. 36. JFK Call for a New America • In 1961, John Kennedy announced that the torch of American idealism had been passed to a new generation.
  37. 37. JFK Call for a New America • In 1961, John Kennedy announced that the torch of American idealism had been passed to a new generation. • He called on Americans to join in a self-sacrificial campaign to explore a new frontier: they would fight “tyranny, poverty, disease, and war itself.” •
  38. 38. JFK Call for a New America • In 1961, John Kennedy announced that the torch of American idealism had been passed to a new generation. • He called on Americans to join in a self-sacrificial campaign to explore a new frontier: they would fight “tyranny, poverty, disease, and war itself.” • They would send American ambassadors of good will around the world, and they would land a man on the moon.
  39. 39. JFK Call for a New America • In 1961, John Kennedy announced that the torch of American idealism had been passed to a new generation. • He called on Americans to join in a self-sacrificial campaign to explore a new frontier: they would fight “tyranny, poverty, disease, and war itself.” • They would send American ambassadors of good will around the world, and they would land a man on the moon. • Kennedy called on Americans to create a new America.
  40. 40. 1963 Lyndon Johnson expanded Kennedy’s social and economic vision • Vowed to win the war against poverty and build a “Great Society” that elevated the poor, cared for the elderly, and offered educational opportunities to all.
  41. 41. 1963 Lyndon Johnson expanded Kennedy’s social and economic vision • Vowed to win the war against poverty and build a “Great Society” that elevated the poor, cared for the elderly, and offered educational opportunities to all. • Pushed through Congress one of the most ambitious and extensive legislative agendas in history: Medicare, Medicaid, VISTA, Head Start, federal college scholarships, Office of Economic Opportunity.
  42. 42. 1963 Lyndon Johnson expanded Kennedy’s social and economic vision • Vowed to win the war against poverty and build a “Great Society” that elevated the poor, cared for the elderly, and offered educational opportunities to all. • Pushed through Congress one of the most ambitious and extensive legislative agendas in history: Medicare, Medicaid, VISTA, Head Start, federal college scholarships, Office of Economic Opportunity. • Johnson, the US Congress, and 43 million people (61% voters) gave Johnson an enormous mandate in 1964 believed that they were creating a new America.
  43. 43. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1960s
  44. 44. The Apollo 11 mission landed the first humans on the Moon in July 1969. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1960s#Science
  45. 45. Education Reform 1960’s Experiment Jerome Bruner MACOS Curriculum
  46. 46. US National Education Reform 1960’s After Sputnik, for the first time, the US government made a major investment in curriculum development for K-12 classrooms. The hope was to train future scientists who would help the country reach the moon before the Communist empire.
  47. 47. Jerome Bruner (1915- ) American Cognitive Scientist Father of Inquiry Education
  48. 48. Constructivist Theory Discovery Learning • Learning is an active process. • Learners construct new ideas and develop new beliefs based on what they ALREADY know and have already learned. • Learners make decisions, transform information, and base hypotheses relying on their cognitive structure.
  49. 49. Teacher’s Role • Inquiry learning (questioning) • Discovery learning (help students develop ideas) • Socratic learning (active dialogue) • Spiral curriculum: revisit basic ideas repeatedly until learner has full understanding • Facilitate learning process
  50. 50. 1960
  51. 51. 1964: Bruner takes leave of absence from Harvard to develop MACOS (Man a Course of Study) with curriculum writer Peter Dow.
  52. 52. Creating Post-Sputnik Studies Thirty social science teachers, psychologists, and anthropologists meet to create a curriculum to teach young children about humans through the study of animals and simple human cultures.
  53. 53. MACOS Questions: –What is human about human beings? –How did they get that way? –How can they be made more so?
  54. 54. MACOS • Socio-anthropological approach • Stimulate curiosity • Focus on inquiry and discovery • Began with the idea that if children were taught how to understand human behavior, they would be more likely become better adults. • To teach children about a different race and allow them to equate their understanding of that race with their own in the hope of eradicating racism and ethnocentricity. • Help children think like social scientists. • Attempted to promote scientific literacy.
  55. 55. http://www.macosonline.org/course/guides/MACOS%20Evaluation%20Strategies.pdf
  56. 56. A Course of Study Man: A Course of Study consists of books, films, posters, records, games and other classroom materials. More importantly, it consists of a set of assumptions about man. www.macosonline.org/course/
  57. 57. “Chain of Life” The entire history of a living thing • Simple lifespan • Nurturing • Troop societal context • Inate and learned behavior • Man’s lifespan • Man’s interaction with other lifeforms • Salmon • Herring gull • Baboons • Netsilik Inuit • Reindeer • seals
  58. 58. What’s in a lifetime? Introductory Lessons
  59. 59. Salmon: 8 days • Animal adaptation • Salmon • Information and behavior • Comparing animal adaptation http://www.rfwp.com/pages/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/Man-A-Course-of-Study-NCAGT-2012.pdf
  60. 60. http://www.rfwp.com/pages/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/Man-A-Course-of-Study-NCAGT-2012.pdf
  61. 61. Herring Gull: 10-12 days • Innate & Learned Behavior • Natural Selection • Structure & Function • Observer’s Handbook • Herring Gull Behavior http://www.rfwp.com/pages/wp- content/uploads/2011/06/Man-A-Course-of-Study- NCAGT-2012.pdf
  62. 62. OBSERVER’S HANDBOOK http://www.rfwp.com/pages/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/Man-A-Course-of-Study-NCAGT-2012.pdf
  63. 63. Baboons: 18-30 days • Animals of the Savannah • Field Notes • The Baboon Troop: Family Structures • Baboon Communication • Photomural, Sounds, Map • Films: Animals of Amboseli, Baboon Troop, Young/Older Infant, Jane Goodall • http://www.rfwp.com/pages/wp- content/uploads/2011/06/Man-A-Course-of-Study- NCAGT-2012.pdf
  64. 64. http://www.rfwp.com/pages/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/Man-A-Course-of-Study-NCAGT-2012.pdf
  65. 65. A Foundation: 42 days http://www.rfwp.com/pages/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/Man-A-Course-of-Study-NCAGT-2012.pdf
  66. 66. The Netsilik Eskimo • Naturalistic observation through film • Supported by literature, activities, and plays (The True Play, Building a Skin Sled) Kablonka, a Netsilik from 1903-05 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Netsilik_Inuit
  67. 67. The Netsilik Film Series A benchmark of visual anthropology that captured a year in the life of an Inuit family living in the remote Canadian Arctic, reconstructing an ancient culture on the cusp of contact with the outside world.
  68. 68. At the Inland Camps: 30 days • The World of the Netsilik: Life at a Stone Weir • The Hunting Way of Life: Life at the Caribou Hunting Camp in Early Autumn • Netsilik Families: Life at a Fishing Camp
  69. 69. On the Ice • The Dangers of Winter • The Hunting Way of Life in Winter • The Winter Camp: The Individual and the Group • The Long Gaze
  70. 70. MACOS in the US • The curriculum took a year out of the normal curriculum • Was taught in 47 states in elementary and middle schools in the U.S. and reached approximately 400,000 students. • Used film in an innovative way and won several awards, including the American Educational Publishers Institute award, an American Film Festival award, two CINE Golden Eagle awards, and an Emmy Award (1971). • Funded by the National Science Foundation and the Ford Foundaton. http://libguides.ioe.ac.uk/content.php?pid=477171&sid=3908259
  71. 71. http://libguides.ioe.ac.uk/content.php?pid=477171&sid=3909250
  72. 72. Lloyd Tredwell Former MACOS teacher “Just came across this site and am thrilled to see the idea is still alive. I was one of the first to teach MACOS to fifth graders.... To this day my finest teaching was done during this time in my life. MACOS reached the unreachable student. True learning took place that I have not seen before or since. The American education system...might not be the mess it is today if MACOS and programs like it were in wide spread use.” October 7, 2010 http://www.macosonline.org/?page_id=23
  73. 73. Lloyd Tredwell Former MACOS teacher “MACOS developed in students a respect for life at all levels. Students learned to respect themselves and the importance and value of what each student in their class had to offer regardless of their ability. For the teacher, to see how much the students grew... truly brought forth the passion and fire that made us want to be teachers in the first place. American education has certainly taken giant steps backward since that time. Just imagine what could be done with this course today with the technology we have at our finger tips.” October 7, 2010 http://www.macosonline.org/?page_id=23
  74. 74. Dr. Gary G. Pears Former MACOS Teacher “…considering just how to examine some of the concepts in the Psych 2/ 3 High School course, I was reflecting on what had a significant impact on me in my educational journey. It was MACOS that I had trained in at Uni and Teacher Training. I had access to some parts of the Course when I taught it ion the G&T program all those years ago and most recently went to our local Western Australian Unis to find that their MACOS Materials were “missing”!! Interestingly, one Teacher Training Resource Library said that they had ‘let it go” because it was, “… to difficult for teachers to understand and deliver”!!! A very insight into the teacher selection and training programs I feel!” June 30, 2011 http://www.macosonline.org/?page_id=11&album=all&gallery=3&pid=28
  75. 75. UbuRoivas Former MACOS Student “Hey, we did MACOS in my primary school in Sydney - it was probably my favourite part of the day, and I hold it at least partially responsible for me wanting to study secular humanist, culturally relativist liberal arts at university.” September 25, 2011 http://www.metafilter.com/107770/Man-A-Course-of-Study
  76. 76. Laurel Rech Former MACOS Student I had this curriculum in 1971 when I was in 5th grade and to this day it was one of the best educational experiences with it’s balance of creative activities and analyses. Using the same format to study different life forms provided a framework to discover and draw conclusions about other man made and natural subjects. I still remember creating a big savanah with a tribe of baboons, predators and food/water source. I wish my children had such well thought out curriculum now. March 10, 2010 http://www.macosonline.org/?page_id=11&album=all&gallery=3&pid=28
  77. 77. Christina Ellis Former MACOS Student I had this curriculum in 1972, I was in a Mulit-level class (5th, 6th and 7th Graders) in Phoenix, AZ. To me it was one of the best educational experience I have ever had. Our class worked at our own pace and I found myself doing more assignments than I ever had before, we were also graded on the work that we did not the assignments, per curriculum master sheet, that we didn’t do. September 8, 2010 http://www.macosonline.org/?page_id=11&album=all&gallery=3&pid=28
  78. 78. Elizabeth Ten Dyke Former MACOS Student While sitting in my first doctoral seminar in cultural anthropology (now 20 years ago), the professor asked us why we had chosen to pursue this course of study. I sat, puzzled, having never really thought about the question before, then it dawned on me–because of MACOS. The learning experiences I had had in fourth grade were so compelling I remember them to this day. They strongly influenced my perceptions of the social sciences in general, anthropology in particular, and my decision to pursue, and complete, a Ph.D. in cultural anthropology. December 29, 2010 http://www.macosonline.org/?page_id=11&album=all&gallery=3&pid=28
  79. 79. The MACOS Curriculum Controversy
  80. 80. MACOS Reach in US Schools By 1975, 17,000 elementary schools in 47 states were using the MACOS curriculum. http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/1999/05/19/36nsf.h18.html
  81. 81. The Controversy “The first sign of impending trouble appeared in Lake City, …Florida (population 10,000), in the fall of 1970. Shortly after school opened in September, Reverend Don Glenn, a Baptist minister who had recently moved to Lake City visited his daughter’s sixth-grade class at the Minnie J. Niblack Elementary School and asked her teacher for copies of the MACOS materials” (Dow 1991, p.178). http://www.nas.edu/sputnik/lappan3.htm
  82. 82. Realistic segments of curriculum came under attack • One film segment taught about Netsilik Indians in the Canadian Arctic and their practices of infanticide and mercy killing to preserve their culture by killing unwanted babies and abandoning the elderly on icebergs. • Rev. Don Glenn charged that MACOS was teaching a "hippie-yippie philosophy”.
  83. 83. Allegations against MACOS Glenn claimed that the materials advocated sex education, evolution, pornography, gun control “hippie-yippee philosophy,” and Communism. http://www.nas.edu/sputnik/lappan3.htm
  84. 84. Allegations against MACOS Glenn claimed that the materials advocated sex education, evolution, pornography, gun control “hippie-yippee philosophy,” and Communism. A local radio station supported his broadcast of four hour-long programs criticizing MACOS….. He warned that MACOS was a threat to democracy. http://www.nas.edu/sputnik/lappan3.htm
  85. 85. Continued MACOS Criticism “The state is attempting to assert control over the thought life of children… attempted to indoctrinate young children into the teachings of humanism…. Humanist values are being taught in the schools through such methods as “values clarification.” All of these things constitute an attempt to wean children away from biblical Christianity.” [Christian Broadcasting Network] http://savageminds.org/2005/10/28/eskimos-and-%E2%80%9Chippie-yippee- philosophy%E2%80%9D-an-interview-with-asen-balikci/ Pat Robertson was among the new “televangelists” of the “New Right” that came to cultural and political prominence in the late 1970’s and early 80”s. http://www.ushistory.org/us/58e.asp
  86. 86. Criticism Momentum • Growing attacks on MACOS over several years • Full scale Congressional debate in both houses in 1973 • NSF launched an internal and audit of fiscal management. • Audit revealed nothing, but damage was done • Dow quotes the former acting assistant director for science education(of NSF), Harvey Averch, • “It was the worst political crisis in NSF history.” • Congress voted to halt funding for MACOS in 1975. • MACOS stopped being used by most school districts and soon disappeared completely. (Dow 1991, p. 229) http://savageminds.org/2005/10/28/eskimos-and-%E2%80%9Chippie-yippee- philosophy%E2%80%9D-an-interview-with-asen-balikci/
  87. 87. Criticism Effect In 1975, the opponents both in and out of Congress had sufficient clout to force Congress to stop funding MACOS and all educational reform. http://savageminds.org/2005/10/28/eskimos-and-%E2%80%9Chippie-yippee- philosophy%E2%80%9D-an-interview-with-asen-balikci/
  88. 88. Looking Back at MACOS, the controversy, and the Effects on Education
  89. 89. US Education Reform Effects • Decade of little education activity at NSF (1975-85) • Education Directorate was downsized to an Office with a skeleton staff and few programs. • Outcry for a federal role in education finally overcame the conservative politics of the Reagan presidency. • In 1985 a Directorate for Science and Engineering Education was established within NSF. • 1985 Level of funding for education efforts was not anywhere near the commitment of Congress to NSF education activities during the height of the curriculum development efforts of the 50s and 60s.
  90. 90. THROUGH THESE EYES by Charles Laird, National Film Board of Canada https://www.nfb.ca/film/through_these_eyes 2004, 55 min. Available free online at url above.
  91. 91. Peter Dow MACOS Curriculum Writer • Insider's account of post-Sputnik days of federally funded scholar-led curriculum innovation and of the ensuing controversy that undermined MACOS. •MACOS demonstrated the power of student-directed learning or alternative strategies for stimulating inquiry and of non- didactic approaches to instruction. •The experience of designing and distributing the course also taught the innovators hard lessons about educational politics and the economics of American textbook development and publishing.
  92. 92. MACOS in the UK • The UK also went through a crisis in education due to the unfairness of the selective system of education (grammar vs. secondary modern) and the 11+ examinations that determined the future of young children and which caused a great deal of unhappiness among the growing middle class. • Under Harold Wilson’s leadership, the economy was buoyant and for the first time more was spent on education than on defense as the government realized the importance of educating the young for the future of the country. • The government’s investment in education resulted in 1,800 new secondary schools being built in England and Wales from the mid-60s onwards. • The benefits of child centered education were discussed widely and this resulted in the rise of many subject and age specific curriculum development projects. The 60s are generally considered the ‘Golden Age of Curriculum Development’. • The promise of secondary education for all was fulfilled and the school leaving age was finally raised to 16 in 1972. • A comparable program to MACOS was the Humanities Curriculum Project which was developed under the auspicious of the Schools Council (established in 1964 by the Secretary of State for Education and who took responsibility for curriculum and examinations) which was a powerful body dominated by teacher representatives. • http://libguides.ioe.ac.uk/print_content.php?pid=477171&sid=3909250&mode=g
  93. 93. MACOS in Australia • Rona Joyner led a coalition of fundamentalist Christians • They took offense to the MACOS primary school program in Queensland, Australia. • Joyner believed “Children don’t go to school to learn to think.” • Joyner saw MACOS as an attempt to socially engineer children into dangerous social views, and ultimately into socialism. • Although the government initially resisted, the MACOS program was finally abandoned in 1976. • http://www.anu.edu.au/polsci/marx/interventions/qld_abortion.ht m
  94. 94. Now? The United States officially ended its shuttle program after 30 years. "The space shuttle changed the way we view the world, the way we view the universe," he told NASA mission controllers. "America's not going to stop exploring. Thanks for protecting us and bringing this program to a fitting end.” --Atlantis Mission commander Chris Ferguson, July 21, 2011, after the landing of the last shuttle mission.
  95. 95. Current Space Exploration Currently there are 6 people in space right now: 3 Russians, 2 Americans, and one German. (check below for up to date status) http://www.howmanypeopleareinspacerightnow.com/
  96. 96. Is the US behind? • The caveat is –currently Russia has a monopoly on human space travel to / from the ISS. • Russia charges the United States roughly $63 million per seat on the their Soyuz rocket ships. They guarantee seats for 12 American astronauts.
  97. 97. Current US Education Reform Efforts
  98. 98. Criticisms of Current Education Reform Efforts “As a parent of two elementary students (first and third grade) in Staten Island, NY, I witness daily the negative impacts that Common Core and standardized testing, under the guise of education reform, are having on them. They come home each day and spend hours on homework that makes little sense to them and absolutely no sense in some cases to us, especially in math. Their love for learning is squashed as more of an emphasis has been placed on instructional scripts aligned to the Common Core, test prep, and homework designed to make them relive the torture they just went through in school….. Shouldn't we be instilling a passion for learning in each and every child?” http://www.huffingtonpost.com/eric-sheninger/education-reform-destroying- childhood_b_5235535.html
  99. 99. Criticisms of Current Education Reform Efforts • A Long Island school has canceled its traditional end-of-year kindergarten show — saying the children can’t afford to take time off from getting themselves “college and career’’ ready. • http://nypost.com/2014/04/28/kindergart en-show-cancelled-so-kids-can-study-to- be-college-ready/
  100. 100. HOW can we use the lessons learned from MACOS for current education reform?
  101. 101. HOW can we combine our technological advances with the lessons learned from MACOS to affect education reform?
  102. 102. WHAT technologies would best align with innovative reform efforts?
  103. 103. How much has CHANGED? How much REMAINS THE SAME?
  104. 104. Questions remaining • We learned that MACOS had high impact on teachers and students. • We learned that as a nation we are not culturally ready; we are divided. • What can we do to work with the culture in the direction of the benefits of a curriculum like MACOS?
  105. 105. Theoretical Foundations MACOS • Bruner, Jerome • 1965 Man: A Course of Study (Occasional Paper No. Three) • 1966 The Growth of Mind (Occasional Paper No. Eight) • 1966 Towards a Theory of Instruction. Harvard University Press. • Ethos: Journal of the Society for Psychological Anthropology presents a special issue devoted to Jerome Bruner – Vol. 36 Issue 1 (March 2008)
  106. 106. Controversy Over MACOS • Conlan, John B.; Dow, Peter B. • 1975 “Pro/Con Forum: The MACOS Controversy. The Push for a Uniform National Curriculum [And] MACOS Revisited: A Commentary on the Most Frequently Asked Questions about “Man: A Course of Study”. Social Education, 39, 6, 388-96, Oct 1975 • Dow, Peter Burton • 1979 Innovation’s Perils: An Account of the Origins, Implementation, and Public Reaction to “Man: ACourse of Study.”I Ph.D. dissertation, Administration, Planning, and Social Policy, Harvard University. • 1979 “MACOS: Social Studies in Crisis,” Educational Leadership, Vol 43, No.1, October, 1979. • 1991 Schoolhouse Politics: Lessons from the Sputnik Era. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press • 1998 “Revisiting MACOS: Problems and Prospects for Teaching Anthropology in the Schools.” Seminar presented at the Department of Anthropology, Syracuse University, 2 December 1998. • Smith, R.A., and J. Knight • 1978 “MACOS in Queensland: The Politics of Educational Knowledge.” Australian Journal of Education 22(3):225-48 • Woolfson, Peter • 1974 “The Fight over MACOS—An Ideological Conflict in Vermont.” [Council on] Anthropology and Education Quarterly 5(3):27–30.
  107. 107. Criticism and Evaluations of MACOS • Caputo, Edward Mario • Effects of “Man: A Course of Study,” an Experimental Social Science Course, Upon the Achievement, Attitudes, and Anxiety of Impoverished Children in Selected Florida Schools. Florida State University. • Cort, H.R., Naomi H. Henderson, and Cheryl Jones. • 1971 Approaches to Further Evaluation of Man: A Course of Study: A Final Report to the National Science Foundation • 1977 A Longitudal Study of Man: A Course of Study, Volume II: Quantitative Results • 1977 A Longitudal Study of Man: A Course of Study, Volume III: Interviews • Falkenstein, Lynda Carl • 1977 Man: A Course of Study— A Case Study of Diffusion in Oregon. Ph.D. dissertation, School of Education, Stanford University • Ryan, F., and R. Wheeler. • 1977 “The Effects of Cooperative and Competitive Background Experience of Students on the Play of a Simulation Game.” Journal of Educational Research 70: 295-299. • Tredwell, Lloyd, and David Zodikoff. • 1975 “A Study of the Effects of Jerome Bruner’s Man: A Course of Study on Social Studies Achievement in Fifth Grade.” Paper presented to the Asian American Conference at the University of Massachusetts (December 6, 1974).
  108. 108. Contemporary Visions and Views • Beaudet, François T. • Personal page with extensive MACOS-related links, at the University of Montreal. • Laird, Charles • 2004 Through These Eyes. Documentary produced with the National Film Board of Canada. • Lukethaus, Nancy C. • 2008 “Putting ‘Culture’ Into Cultural Psychology: Anthropology’s Role in the Development of Bruner’s Cultural Psychology.” Ethos 36(1): 46-59 • Ruby, Jay • 2005 “Anthropology as a Subversive Art: A Review of Through These Eyes”. American Anthropologist 107(4):684–693. • Wolcott, Harry F. • 2008 “The Middlemen of MACOS.” Anthropology & Education Quarterly 38(2):195-206.
  109. 109. References • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Man:_A_Course_of_Study • (Hu)mans: A Course of Study, http://www.macosonline.org/ • MACOS: IOE LibGuides, http://libguides.ioe.ac.uk/content.php?pid=477171&sid=3923878 • Through These Eyes by Charles Laird, https://www.nfb.ca/film/through_these_eyes • http://www.nas.edu/sputnik/index.htm • http://www.nas.edu/sputnik/lappan4.htm • http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/1999/05/19/36nsf.h18.html • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1960s#Science • http://www.shmoop.com/1960s/summary.html • http://www.cnn.com/2011/US/07/21/shuttle.landing/index.html?_ s=PM:US • http://cupola.gettysburg.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1017&co ntext=student_scholarship
  110. 110. More References • http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2007/10/how- sputnik-changed-u-s-education/ • http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId =14829195 • http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED277160 • http://www.cnn.com/2011/US/07/21/shuttle.landing/i ndex.html?_s=PM:US • http://foreignpolicyblogs.com/2011/10/07/54-years- after-sputnik-where-do-things-stand/ • https://www.nsf.gov/od/lpa/nsf50/vbush1945.htm • http://www.rfwp.com/pages/wp- content/uploads/2011/06/Man-A-Course-of-Study- NCAGT-2012.pdf • http://whyfiles.org/047sputnik/main2.html

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