Physical Science 3.3 : Mixtures


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Physical Science 3.3 : Mixtures

  1. 1. Mixtures<br />Physical Science<br />Chapter 3.3<br />
  2. 2. Objectives:<br />Describethree properties of mixtures.<br />Describefour methods of separating the parts of a mixture.<br />Analyzea solution in terms of its solute and solvent.<br />Explainhow concentration affects a solution.<br />Describethe particles in a suspension.<br />Explainhow a colloid differs from a solution and a suspension.<br />Bellringer<br />When you add sugar to coffee, tea, iced tea, or lemonade, the sugar disappears. What do you think happens to the sugar?<br />
  3. 3. Properties of Mixtures<br />Mixture<br />combination of two or more substances that are not chemically combined<br />No Chemical Changes in a Mixture <br />So, each substance has the same chemical makeup it had before the mixture was formed.<br />Separating Mixtures Through Physical Methods <br />Mixtures can be separated by using physical changes. <br />Physical changes do not change the identities of the substances.<br />
  4. 4. Salt dissolves in water<br />Magnet: separates mixture of metals from nonmetals.<br />Distillation:separates mixture based on boiling points<br />More than one mixture:<br />Takes more than one step.<br />Filtration: remove large solid from liquid.<br />Evaporation: remove dissolve solid from liquid <br />Pour mixture through filter<br />Centrifuge: separates mixture by densities of components<br />Evaporate water<br />
  5. 5. The Ratio of Components in a Mixture<br />The components of a mixture do not need to be mixed in a definite ratio.<br />Example, granite is a mixture of three minerals. <br />Feldspar - pink<br />Mica - black <br />Quartz - colorless<br />
  6. 6. Solutions<br />mixture that appears to be a single substance. <br />Dissolving<br />Process in which particles of substances separate and spread evenly throughout a mixture<br />solute<br /> the substance that is dissolved. <br />solvent<br />the substance in which the solute is dissolved<br />
  7. 7. Examples <br />Liquid solutions <br />soft drinks<br />Gasoline<br />tap water<br />Gas solutions<br />Air<br />Solid Solutions<br />Steel<br />Brass<br />Gold in jewelry<br />Alloys<br />solid solutions of metals or nonmetals dissolved in metals.<br />
  8. 8. Particles in Solutions<br />Particles in solutions are so small that they never settle out. <br />Cannot be removed by filtering.<br />Particles are so small that they don’t even scatter light.<br />
  9. 9. Concentrations of Solutions<br />A measure of the amount of solute dissolved in a solvent.<br />Concentrated or Dilute?<br />Concentrate: a lot of solute in solution<br />Dilute: small amount of solute in solution<br />
  10. 10.
  11. 11. Solubility<br />the ability of a solute to dissolve in a solvent at a certain temperature<br />The solubility of most solids in water increases with temperature. <br />
  12. 12. Dissolving Gases in Liquids<br />Gases become less soluble in liquids as the temperature is raised.<br />Dissolving Solids Faster in Liquids<br />3 Ways to make a solid dissolve faster:<br />Mixing the solution<br />Heating the solution<br />Crushing the solute into smaller particles.<br />
  13. 13. Suspensions<br />a mixture in which particles of a material are dispersed throughout a liquid or a gas but are large enough that they settle out.<br />The particles are large enough to scatter or block light.<br />Can be separated by passing it through a filter.<br />
  14. 14. Colloids<br />A mixture in which the particles are dispersed throughout but are not heavy enough to settle out.<br />Particles in a colloid are large enough to scatter light. <br />Cannot be separated by passing it through a filter.<br />