Earth science 2.3 : Sedimentary Rock

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Earth science 2.3 : Sedimentary Rock

  1. 1. Sedimentary rock<br />Earth Science<br />Chapter 2.3<br />
  2. 2. Objectives:<br />Describe the origin of sedimentary rock.<br />Describethe three main categories of sedimentary rock.<br />Describe three types of sedimentary structure.<br />
  3. 3. Origins of Sedimentary Rock<br />Wind, water, ice, sunlight, and gravity all cause rock to physically weather into fragments<br />Through erosion, these rock and mineral fragments, called sediment, are moved from one place to another.<br />The sediment is deposited in layers, and eventually newer layers cover the older layers.<br />
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  5. 5. The most noticeable feature of sedimentary rock is its layers, or strata.<br />A single, horizontal layer of rock is sometimes visible for many miles.<br />
  6. 6. Composition of Sedimentary rock<br />Sedimentary rock is classified by the way it forms.<br />Clastic sedimentary rock<br />made of fragments of rocks cemented together by a mineral such as calcite or quartz.<br />can have coarse-grained, medium-grained, or fine-grained textures.<br />Sandstone<br />Siltstone<br />Conglomerate<br />Shale<br />Fine – grained <br />Course – grained <br />
  7. 7. Chemical sedimentary rockforms from solutions of dissolved mineral and water.<br />As rainwater slowly makes its way to the ocean, it dissolves some of the rock material it passes through<br />Some of this dissolved material eventually crystallized and forms the mineral that make up chemical sedimentary rock.<br />Halite<br />
  8. 8. Organic sedimentary rock<br />made up of the skeletons and shells of sea animals<br />These remains collect on the ocean floor and eventually become cemented together<br />Coal is a type of organic sedimentary rock that is formed when decomposed plant material is buried beneath sediment and is changed by increasing heat and pressure.<br />Chalk<br />Coal<br />
  9. 9. Sedimentary Rock Structures<br />Many features indicate the way sedimentary rock is formed<br />Most important feature is stratification<br />the process in which sedimentary rocks are arranged in layers<br />Strata differ from one another depending on <br />Kind<br />Size<br />Color<br />
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  11. 11. Ripple marks<br />Features in which sedimentary rocks sometimes record the motion of wind and water waves on lakes, oceans, rivers, and sand dunes<br />Mud cracks<br />Structures that form when fine-grained sediments at the bottom of a shallow body of water are exposed to the air and dry out.<br />Even raindrop impressions can be preserved in fine-grained sediments, as small pits with raised rims.<br />

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