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Chapter 5.3 : Electron Configuration and the Periodic Table

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Chapter 5.3 : Electron Configuration and the Periodic Table

  1. 1. Chapter 5.3<br />Electron Configurations and Periodic properties<br />
  2. 2. Objectives:<br />Define atomic radii and ionic radii, ionization energy, electron affinity, and electronegativity.<br />Compare periodic trends for these properties and state reasons for variations.<br />Define valence electrons, and state how many are present in atoms of each main-group element.<br /> Compare the these same properties of d-block elements with those of the main-group elements<br />
  3. 3. Atomic Radii<br />Defined as one-half the distance between the nuclei of identical atoms that are bonded together<br />Period trends<br />Decrease from left to right<br />Due to increasing positive charge<br /><ul><li>Group trends
  4. 4. Increase down a group
  5. 5. Due to occupying higher energy levels</li></li></ul><li>Atomic Radii<br />
  6. 6. Ionization Energy<br />Defined as energy required to remove one electron from a neutral atom of an element (IE)<br />A + energy A+ + e-<br /><ul><li>Ion – atom or group of bonded atoms that has a positive or negative charge.</li></li></ul><li>Ionization Energy<br />Period trends<br />Generally increase across a period<br />Due to increasing nuclear charge<br /><ul><li>Group trends
  7. 7. Generally decrease down a group
  8. 8. Due to electron shielding of outer electrons</li></li></ul><li>Electron Affinity<br />Defined as the energy change that occurs when an electron is acquired by a neutral atom<br />A +e- A- + energy <br /><ul><li>Quantity released represented by a negative number
  9. 9. Forced
  10. 10. Unstable</li></ul>A +e- + energyA-<br /><ul><li>Quantity absorbed represented by a positive number</li></li></ul><li>Ionic radii<br />Cation – positive ion<br />Formed by loss of one or more electrons<br />Smaller due to removal of electron & stronger pull by nucleus on remaining electrons<br /><ul><li>Anion– negative ion
  11. 11. Formed by gain of one or more electrons
  12. 12. Larger due to addition of electron & remaining electrons are not pulled as strongly by nucleus</li></ul>Ionic Radii<br />
  13. 13. Valence Electrons<br />Defined as the electrons available to be lost, gained, or shared in the formation of chemical compounds<br />Valence electron<br />Sodium atom<br />Chlorine atom<br />
  14. 14. Valence Electrons<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8<br />
  15. 15. Electronegativity<br />Defined as the measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons<br />Want to gain electrons!!<br />Noble gases have very low electronegativity<br />Alkali metals are low as well<br />Halogens have the highest<br />Electronegativity<br /><ul><li>Period trends
  16. 16. Tend to increase across a period
  17. 17. Due to wanting to fill outer shell
  18. 18. Group trends
  19. 19. Tend to decrease down a group</li></li></ul><li>Electronegativity<br />

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