Chapter 5.1 : History of the Periodic Table


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Chapter 5.1 : History of the Periodic Table

  1. 1. The Periodic LawHistory of the Periodic Table<br /> Chapter 5.1<br />
  2. 2. Objectives<br />Explain the roles of Mendeleev and Moseley in the development of the periodic table.<br />Describe the modern periodic table.<br />Explain how the periodic law can be used to predict the physical and chemical properties of elements<br />Describe how the elements belonging to a group of the periodic table are interrelated in terms of atomic number.<br />
  3. 3. Early History<br />By 1860 – more than 60 elements had been discovered.<br />September of 1860 – First international Congress of Chemists met<br />Cannizzaro – convincing method for measuring relative atomic mass<br />Became a standard for showing relationship between atomic mass and properties of elements<br />Stanislao Cannizzaro<br />
  4. 4. Mendeleev and Periodicity<br />Russian Chemist – Dmitri Mendeleev<br />First usable periodic table<br />Arranged according to :<br />1. Properties<br />2. Atomic mass<br />Interesting facts:<br />1. Some Atomic masses were out of place<br /> 2. Empty spaces for elements not yet discovered. Later they were and fit right in.<br />
  5. 5. Moseley and Periodic Law<br />1911 – Henry Moseley<br />Working with spectra of 38 metals – elements fit into better patterns when organized according to nuclear charge.<br />Led to :<br />Modern definition of atomic number<br />Periodic table organized according to atomic number instead of atomic mass<br />Periodic Law : The physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers.<br />
  6. 6. The Modern Periodic table<br />Define: arrangement of the elements in order of their atomic number so that elements with similar properties fall in the same column, or group.<br />
  7. 7. The Noble Gases<br />Most significant addition to periodic table<br />1894 – John William Strutt and Sir William Ramsey<br />Discovered Argon<br /><ul><li>1898 – Ramsay discovered Kr and Xe
  8. 8. 1900 – Friedrich Dorn discovered Rn
  9. 9. Placed this new group of elements in a new group
  10. 10. Group 18</li></ul>Noble Gases<br />
  11. 11. Lanthanides and Actinides<br />Lanthanides – 14 elements with atomic number from 58 to 71<br />Cerium to Lutetium (Top row – f-block)<br /><ul><li>Actinides – 14 elements with atomic number from 90 to 103
  12. 12. Thorium to Lawrencium ( Bottom row – f-block)
  13. 13. To save space – both were set off below main portion of periodic table
  14. 14. What it would look like!</li></li></ul><li>Periodicity<br />Similar periodic pattern repeated with atomic number<br />Difference in atomic number of similar properties<br />8, 8, 18, 18, 32<br />Difference in atomic number<br />Atomic Number<br />2 8<br />10 8<br />18 18<br />36 18<br />54 32<br /> 86 <br />3 8<br />11 8<br />19 18<br />37 18<br />55 32<br />87 <br />
  15. 15. Periodic Table songby Tom Lehrer <br />There’s antimony, arsenic, aluminum, selenium, And hydrogen and oxygen and nitrogen and rheniumAnd nickel, neodymium, neptunium, germanium, And iron, americium, ruthenium, uranium, Europium, zirconium, lutetium, vanadium And lanthanum and osmium and astatine and radium And gold, protactinium and indium and gallium And iodine and thorium and thulium and thallium. <br />There’s yttrium, ytterbium, actinium, rubidium And boron, gadolinium, niobium, iridium And strontium and silicon and silver and samarium, And bismuth, bromine, lithium, beryllium and barium. <br />There’s holmium and helium and hafnium and erbium And phosphorous and francium and fluorine and terbium And manganese and mercury, molybdinum, magnesium, Dysprosium and scandium and cerium and cesium And lead, praseodymium, platinum, plutonium, Palladium, promethium, potassium, polonium, Tantalum, technetium, titanium, tellurium, And cadmium and calcium and chromium and curium. <br />There’s sulfur, californium and fermium, berkelium And also mendelevium, einsteinium and nobelium And argon, krypton, neon, radon, xenon, zinc and rhodium And chlorine, cobalt, carbon, copper, Tungsten, tin and sodium. <br />These are the only ones of which the news has come to Harvard, And there may be many others but they haven’t been discovered. <br />