Chapter 20.1 : Introduction to Carbon and Organic Chemistry

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Chapter 20.1 : Introduction to Carbon and Organic Chemistry

  1. 1. Carbon and Hydrocarbons<br />Organic Chemistry<br />
  2. 2. Chapter 20.1 and 2<br />Abundance and Importance of CarbonAnd Organic Compounds<br />
  3. 3. Explain how the structure and bonding of carbon lead to the diversity and number of organic compounds.<br />Compare the use of molecular and structural formulas to represent organic compounds.<br />Compare structural and geometric isomers of organic compounds.<br />Objectives:<br />
  4. 4. Carbon<br />Earth’s crust<br />17th in abundance by mass<br />Found in all living matter<br />Body tissue and foods we eat<br />Found in Fuels<br />Coal, petroleum, natural gas, and wood<br />Group 14 element<br />Mostly nonmetallic properties<br />1s22s22p2 --- electron configuration<br />sp3 hybridization<br /> promotes<br /> Four bonding orbitals (sp3)<br />1s<br />2s<br />2p<br />1s<br />2s<br />2p<br />
  5. 5. CH4 – methane<br />Tetrahedral shape<br />Zigzag shape with multiple single bonds<br />C2H4 – ethene<br />Double bond<br />sp2 hybrid<br />C2H2 – ethyne<br />Triple bond<br />sp hybrid<br />
  6. 6. Allotropes of Carbon<br />Diamond<br />Colorless, crystalline solid<br />Hardest material known<br />m.p. above 3500 oC<br />Conducts heat<br />Covalent network bonding<br />Uses: jewelry, cutting, drilling, grinding<br />Graphite<br />Soft, black, crystalline<br />Fair conductor of electricity (delocalized electron)<br />Soft, feels greasy<br />Less dense, strong – in sporting goods and aircraft<br />Hexagonal layers<br />Uses : pencil “lead”, lubricant<br />
  7. 7. Fullerenes<br />Part of soot formed when carbon – containing materials are burned with limited oxygen.<br />Near spherical cages<br />Most stable – C60<br />Also known as “buckyballs”<br />
  8. 8. All organic compounds <br />contain carbon atoms<br />Not all carbon-containing compounds are classified as organic.<br />Ex: Na2CO3, CO, and CO2 are considered inorganic.<br />Organic compounds<br />defined as: covalently bonded compounds containing carbon, excluding carbonates and oxides.<br />Organic Compounds<br />
  9. 9. Carbon Bonding and the Diversity of Organic Compounds<br />Carbon-Carbon Bonding<br />The diversity of organic compounds results from the uniqueness of carbon’s structure and bonding<br />Form long chains and rings of covalently bonded atoms<br />Catenation<br />covalent bonding of an element to itself to form chains or rings<br />Carbon atoms can be linked by single, double, or triple covalent bonds<br />Carbon atoms bind readily to elements with similar electronegativities<br />
  10. 10. Hydrocarbons<br />Composed of only carbon and hydrogen<br />Simplest organic compounds.<br />Other organic compounds <br />contain hydrocarbon backbones to which other elements, primarily O, N, S, and the halogens, are attached.<br />Bonding capabilities of carbon <br />allow for many different arrangements of atoms<br />Some compounds may contain the same atoms <br />but have different properties because the atoms are arrangeddifferently<br />EX: the molecular formula C2H4O represents both ethanol and dimethyl ether<br />Isomers <br />Compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structures<br />
  11. 11. Organic chemists use structural formulas to represent organic compounds.<br />Structural formula<br />indicates the number and types of atoms present in a molecule and also the arrangement of the atoms.<br />Ex: a structural formula for one isomer of C4H10 is the following<br />Condensed:<br />Structural Formulas<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />
  12. 12. Structural formulas <br />do not accurately show the 3-D shape of molecules<br />
  13. 13. Isomers<br />Structural isomers<br />also called “constitutional isomers” <br />atoms are bonded together in different orders<br />EX: the atoms of C4H10 can be arranged in two different ways:<br />Geometric isomers<br />the order of atom bonding is the same but the arrangement of atoms in space is different<br />1,2-dichloroethene<br />cis<br />trans<br />

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