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Chapter 1.2 Matter and its Properties


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Chapter 1.2 Matter and its Properties

  1. 1. Matter and it’s Properties<br />Objectives:<br />Distinguish between the physical properties and chemical properties of matter.<br />Classify changes of matter as physical and chemical.<br />Explain the gas, liquid, and solid states in terms of particles.<br />Distinguish between a mixture and a pure substance.<br />
  2. 2. Matter and Its Properties<br />Matter – anything that has mass and takes up space<br />Mass – measure of amount of matter<br />Volume – amount of space and object takes up<br />Properties – describe matter<br />
  3. 3. Basic building blocks of matter<br />Atom – smallest unit of an element that maintains properties of that element Ex: C, H, Al<br />Element – pure substance made of only on kind of atom Ex: C, H, Al<br />Compound – substance that is made from the atoms of two or more elements that are chemically bonded. Ex: CO2, H2O, C6H12O6<br />
  4. 4. Properties and Changes in matter<br />Properties distinguish between substances and separate them<br />Can reveal identity of unknown substance<br />Extensive property – depend on the amount of matter that is present Ex: volume/mass<br />Intensive property – do not depend on the amount of matter present Ex: melting point, density, ability to conduct electricity<br />
  5. 5. Physical properties and changes<br />Physical property – characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the substance.<br />Example : melting point, boiling point, melt, freeze, torn.<br />Physical Change – change in substance that does not involve a change in the identity of the substance<br />Examples: grinding, cutting, melting, boiling<br />
  6. 6. Changes of state<br />Solid – definite volume and shape <br /><ul><li>Particles of solids are:
  7. 7. Packed together in fixed position,
  8. 8. Held close together by strong attractive forces
  9. 9. Only movement is vibration</li></li></ul><li>Changes of state<br />Liquid – definite volume and no definite shape <br /><ul><li>Particles of Liquids are:
  10. 10. Close together but can move past one another
  11. 11. Move more rapidly than those of a solid
  12. 12. Gives the ability to flow</li></li></ul><li>Changes of state<br />Gas – no definite volume nor shape <br /><ul><li>Particles of gases are:
  13. 13. Very far apart from one another
  14. 14. Move very fast
  15. 15. Visual of all phases of matter</li></li></ul><li>Changes of state<br />Plasma – High temperature physical state of matter in which atoms lose their electrons<br /><ul><li>Plasma is found in fluorescent bulbs</li></li></ul><li>Chemical Properties and Changes<br />Chemical Property – substances ability to undergo changes that transform it into different substances.<br />Examples: ability of charcoal to burn in air, iron to rust, etc.<br /><ul><li>Chemical Change – change in which one or more substances are converted into different substances</li></li></ul><li>Chemical Reaction<br />Reactants – substances that react in a chemical change<br />Products – substances that are formed in a chemical change<br />+<br />table salt<br />sodium metal<br />chlorine gas<br />Sodium Chlorine Sodium Chloride <br />
  16. 16. Classification of matter<br />Matter<br />Can it be separated<br />No<br />Yes<br />Pure substances<br />Mixtures<br />Is the composition uniform<br />Can it be decomposed by chemical means<br />No<br />Yes<br />No<br />Yes<br />Heterogeneous (granite, blood)<br />Homogeneous (air, sugar in water)<br />Compounds (water, sodium chloride)<br />Elements (gold, aluminum, Oxygen)<br />
  17. 17. Classification of matter<br />Mixture – blend of two or more kinds of matter, each of which retains it own identity and properties.<br /><ul><li>Homogeneous – (solutions) uniform throughout
  18. 18. Heterogeneous – Not uniform throughou
  19. 19. Ways to separate: Filtration, evaporation, chromatography, distillation)</li></li></ul><li>Pure substances<br />Has a fixed composition and differs from a mixture in the following ways:<br /><ul><li>Every sample of a given pure substance has exactly the same characteristic properties
  20. 20. Every sample of a given pure substance has exactly the same composition</li>