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# Applied Chapter 3.3 : Electron Configuration

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### Applied Chapter 3.3 : Electron Configuration

1. 1. Chapter 3.3<br />Electron Configuration<br />
2. 2. Objective 1:<br />Compare the Rutherford, Bohr, and Quantum models of the atom.<br />Rutherford’s model of atom<br />Electrons orbit the nucleus just as planets orbit the sun<br />Bohr’s model of the atom<br />Electrons travel around the nucleus in specific energy level<br /> Quantum – difference in <br /> energy between two <br /> energy levels. <br />Bohr Video<br />
3. 3. Quantum model of the atom<br />Electrons are found in orbitals around the nucleus of atom.<br />Orbital (electron cloud) – region of atom where there is a high probability of finding electrons<br />
4. 4. Electrons – Act like particles and waves<br />Particles <br />Cathode ray tube<br />Photoelectric effect<br />Waves<br />Electromagnetic spectrum<br />Line-emission spectrum<br />
5. 5. Objective 2:<br />Explain how the wavelengths of light emitted by an atom provide information about energy levels.<br />Light provides information about electrons<br />Neon<br />Electrons start in ground state<br />Lowest possible energy level<br />Run electricity through gas<br />Electrons absorb this energy<br />They move to excited state<br />Electron has more energy than normal<br />Quickly fall back to ground state<br />Energy is emitted as light<br />Light has a specific wavelength<br />Determines color (and line-emission <br />spectrum)<br />Krypton<br />Argon<br />
6. 6. Emission Spectrums<br />
7. 7. Objective 3:<br />List the four quantum numbers, and describe their significance.<br />Quantum numbers:<br />Number that specifies the properties of electrons<br />Tells where they are in the atom.<br />Principle quantum number ( n )<br />Main energy level<br />n = 1,2,3,4,5 …….. Infinity<br />Distance from nucleus<br />Angular Momentum quantum number ( l )<br />indicates the shape of the orbital<br />l = 0, 1, 2, 3<br /> s p d f<br />s<br />p<br />d<br />
8. 8. Magnetic (m) <br /><ul><li> orientation of orbital around nucleus</li></ul>m =-1,0,+1<br />m = 0<br />m =-2,-1,0,+1,+2<br />
9. 9. 4. Spin Quantum Number ( +1/2, -1/2) or , <br />Indicates the two fundamental spin states of electron in an orbital<br />Single orbital can hold a maximum of 2 electrons<br />
10. 10.
11. 11. Quantum Numbers of the 1st thirty atomic orbitals<br />Total Electrons in n<br />2<br />8<br />18<br />32<br />
12. 12. Objective 4<br />Write the electron Configuration of an atom by using the Pauli Exclusion principle and the aufbau principle.<br />Electron Configuration<br />The arrangement of electrons in an atom<br />Lowest-energy arrangement – ground-state electron configuration<br />Rules Governing Electron Configuration<br />Aufbau Principle – electron occupies the lowest-energy orbital that can receive it. Pg. 105<br />Pauli exclusion Principle – no two electrons in the same atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers<br />Hund’s Rule – orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by one electron before any orbital is occupied by a second electron, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals must have the same spin.<br />
13. 13. Aufbau principle<br /> 4f 5f 6f 7f<br /> 3d 4d 5d 6d 7d<br /> 2p 3p 4p 5p 6p 7p<br />1s 2s 3s 4s 5s 6s 7s<br />** Gives the order of energy levels and orbitals <br />
14. 14. Pauli Exclusion Principle<br />
15. 15. Hund’s Rule<br />
16. 16. Representing Electron Configurations<br />Orbital Notation<br /><ul><li>Na__ __ __ __ __ __</li></ul> 1s 2s 2p 3s<br />Electron-Configuration Notation<br /><ul><li>Na 1s22s22p63s1</li></ul>Noble-Gas Notation<br /><ul><li>Na [Ne] 3s1</li></li></ul><li>Write the electron configuration, orbital notation, and noble gas notation for an atom whose atomic number is:<br />20<br />8<br />17<br />Writing Electron Configuration<br />