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Applied Chapter 3.2 : Structure of Atoms


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Applied Chapter 3.2 : Structure of Atoms

  1. 1. Chapter 3.2<br />Structure of Atoms<br />
  2. 2. Objective 1:<br />Describe the evidence for the existence of electrons, protons, and neutrons, and describe the properties of these subatomic particles.<br />Define atom: smallest particle of an element that retains the chemical properties of that element.<br />Subatomic particles:<br />Protons<br />Neutrons<br />Electrons<br />
  3. 3. Discovery of the Electron<br />Late 1800’s – J.J. Thomson discovered the electron through experiments with cathode-ray tubes.<br />Electron Properties<br />Relative Charge Mass Number actual mass<br />- 1 0 9.109 x 10-31 kg<br />Plum Pudding <br />Model of atom<br />
  4. 4. Discovery of Atomic Nucleus<br />In 1911 – Ernest Rutherford – Gold Foil Experiment<br />Showed that there was a small – dense positively charged nucleus of an atom.<br />Proton Properties<br />Relative Charge Mass Number actual mass<br />+ 1 1 1.673 x 10-27 kg<br />
  5. 5. Neutrons<br />Discovered in 1932 by James Chadwick<br />British Scientist<br />Neutron Properties<br />Relative Charge Mass Number actual mass<br />0 1 1.675 x 10-27 kg<br />
  6. 6. The Atom<br />Nuclear Forces – Short range proton-neutron, proton-proton, and neutron-neutron forces that hold the nuclear particles together <br /><ul><li> Sizes of Atoms
  7. 7. Nucleus compared to rest of atom - approximately size of marble compared to a large football stadium.
  8. 8. Atom is mostly empty space</li></li></ul><li>Objective 2<br />Discuss atoms of different elements in terms of their numbers of electrons, protons, and neutrons, and define the terms atomic number and mass number<br />Atomic Number (Symbol – Z)<br />Number of protons in nucleus of atom<br />Determines the identity of the atom!!!!!<br />C - 6<br />He - ___<br />F - ___<br />Pb - ___<br />Use periodic table to find these!<br />Since atoms are neutral, atomic number is also number of electrons<br />So C also has 6 electrons<br />He - ____ electrons<br />
  9. 9. Objective 3<br /><ul><li>Define isotope, and determine the number of particles in the nucleus of an atom.</li></ul>Isotopes<br /><ul><li>All Hydrogen atoms contain 1 proton
  10. 10. Many naturally occurring elements can contain different numbers of neutrons.
  11. 11. Isotope – at0ms of the same element that have different masses.</li></ul>n<br />n<br />n<br />Protium<br />99.985 %<br />Deuterium<br /> 0.015 % <br />Tritium<br />Trace<br />Three isotopes of Hydrogen<br />
  12. 12. Mass Number<br /><ul><li>Mass number – total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an isotope
  13. 13. Symbol – A
  14. 14. Protium has 1 proton and 0 neutrons
  15. 15. Mass number = #p + #n
  16. 16. = 1 + 0
  17. 17. = 1
  18. 18. What is the mass number deuterium and tritium?
  19. 19. Find on periodic table</li></li></ul><li>Determine the number of particles in an atom<br />How many protons, electrons, and neutrons are present in an atom of copper whose atomic number is 29 and whose mass number is 64?<br />How many protons and electrons are in an atom of sodium whose atomic number is 11?<br />An atom has 13 protons and 14 neutrons. What is its mass number?<br />Calculate the mass number for an atom that has 45 neutrons and 35 electrons.<br />
  20. 20. Designating Isotopes<br /><ul><li>Hyphen Notation
  21. 21. Name of atom – mass number
  22. 22. Uranium - 235
  23. 23. Nuclear symbol
  24. 24. A X A : mass number, Z : atomic number, X : symbol of element
  25. 25. 235U</li></ul>Z<br />92<br /><ul><li>Number of protons Neutrons Electrons</li></ul> 92 143 92<br /><ul><li>Nuclide – general term for any isotope of any element</li></li></ul><li>Determine the number of particles in isotopes.<br />Calculate the numbers of protons, electrons, and neutrons in oxygen – 17 and in oxygen – 18.<br />Chlorine has two stable isotopes, chlorine – 35 and chlorine – 37. The atomic number of chlorine is 17. Calculate the numbers of protons, neutrons, and electrons each isotope has.<br />Calculate the numbers of protons, electrons, and neutrons for each of the following isotopes of calcium : Ca and Ca<br />42<br />44<br />20<br />20<br />