CLIL Context: Europe, Catalonia, Benefits

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CLIL Context: Europe, Catalonia, Benefits

  1. 1. CLIL Context CLPI AICLE iniciació primària CLSI AICLE iniciació secundària Joan Alberich i Carramiñana Carme Florit Ballester Departament d’Ensenyament
  2. 2. “CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) advocates assimilating the academic content of nonlinguistic subjects via a foreign language, which simultaneously promotes the acquisition of content knowledge and the use of the target language. It involves a methodological style that encourages teachers and students to use the language as a means of communication, thus promoting language and content development in the process.” (Gerdes, T. & Pavón, V. 2008. “Talking CLIL”, It’s for Teachers Magazine, 110: 14-17) CLIL : Umbrella Term
  3. 3. There are many different ways of implementing CLIL, whatever the term is used (immersion, bilingualism, multilingualism, language across the curriculum…). All the different models propose to teach content subjects through a foreign language in one way or another.
  4. 4. Teaching any kind of content through a second or foreign language CBT/BE/IP/CLIL PROGRAMMES CBT Content Based Teaching BE Bilingual Education IP Immersion Programmes CLIL Content and Language Integrated Learning CLIL : Umbrella Term
  5. 5.  The foreign language is used as a vehicle for accessing information.  The foreign language is used for instruction and communication.  Learning the language and learning content are part of the same process.  Development of cognitive flexibility and reflection upon the linguistic and communicative functioning of both languages is key. CBT/BE/IP/CLIL PROGRAMMES share: (Víctor Pavó n Vázquez - University of Có rdoba (Spain) - II Encuentro formativo para profesores de inglés – From blackboards to whiteboards: from skills to competences Granada English Teachers Association, April 24th 2010)
  6. 6. In Canada, English and French have been the target languages of French and English speaking communities respectively. In Quebec for example, English speakers in some schools have been taught almost the entire curriculum in French. In the US, with a multilingual population, the main concern has been to guarantee that all school children can fully function in English, specially, in academic contexts. Because of the increase of students from abroad in North- American universities, content-based programmes have been more and more widely used to help these students cope with the demands of academic objectives. In Europe and Asia, most of the programmes are designed to improve the learning of foreign languages. Canada: Immersion USA: Bilingual Education and Content Based Europe & Asia: CLIL/AICLE/EMILE
  7. 7. Canadian Immersion Programmes Canadian Immersion Programmes are by far the most highly acclaimed language learning programmes. Second Language Acquisition researchers, teachers and parents fully agree that the immersionimmersion programmes in Canada have been extremely efficient and successfulsuccessful. Instruction is given in the target language from kindergarten on or starting at some time during elementary school. (Swain & Lapkin, 1982; Swain, 2000)
  8. 8. • In total French immersion, all classes are taught in French, usually for the first three years of the programme. English- language arts classes are introduced in the fourth grade, followed by a gradual increase in English instruction for other subjects. • In partial French-immersion programmes, a varying proportion of classes (usually 50%) are taught in French. This proportion typically remains stable throughout the programme. (Canadian Council on Learning, 2007) • Although the early total immersion programme was considered to be the one which would most threaten the development of first language skills, results of empirical research show that this is not the case. • In the short run, after just two or three years, immersion students lag behind their non-immersion peers in some aspects of English. After that, however, immersion children perform as well as, or better than, their English-educated peers in all aspects of English language skills [in the long run]. (Navés, 2009) Canadian Immersion Programmes
  9. 9. USA: Research on efficient Content Based Teaching Programmes and Bilingual Education Programmes • In the US, the integration of content and language has a long tradition both in what is usually known as Content-Based Instruction (CBI) and in Bilingual Education Programmes (BE). • Although Bilingual Education programmes are still controversial for politicians and the media, when properly implemented, research has clearly shown that they are at least as efficient as non-bilingual programmes, if not more so. • Willig’s (1985) meta-analysis indicated that bilingual education programmes significantly enhanced academic achievement in comparison with English instructional programmes. • In general, research in the US shows that bilingual education, when well implemented, is the most effective way to enable speakers of languages other than English to learn both English and academic subjects (Cummins, 1984; Krashen, 1991, 1997; Swain & Lapkin, 1982)
  10. 10. USA: Research on efficient Content Based Teaching Programmes and Bilingual Education Programmes In 1999, the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Bilingual Education and Minority Languages Affairs (OBEMLA) founded the Intercultural Development Research Association (IDRA) to identify 10 exemplary bilingual education programmes in schools in the US. After examining the programmes, IDRA identified the 25 common characteristics and criteria that were responsible for the success of the programmes. "Success" was operationally defined as evidence of academic achievement (compared to district and/or state standards) for LEP students in bilingual education programmes (IDRA, 2002). For IDRA Newsletter (2002) see also Robledo Montecel et al. (2002a, 2002b and 2004)
  11. 11. CLIL in Europe by David Marsh http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TGnkEMjBg4g CLIL in Europe http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fGzxqtGFOJw&feature=related • The European Commission’s (2005) report on foreign language teaching and learning claims that an excellent way of making progress in a foreign language is “to use it for a purpose, so that the language becomes a tool rather than an end in itself.” (p. 9). • The European Commission has funded research projects across Europe investigating the use of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) since the early-90s, pulling together the threads of existing approaches such as 'content- based instruction', 'immersion', and 'bilingual education'. All the aforementioned terms were replaced by CLIL, which was launched by UNICOM in 1996. (Navés, 2009) Eurydice Report 2012 http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/education/eurydice/index_en.php CLIL in Europe
  12. 12. Status of CLIL provision in primary and general secondary education, 2004/2005 CLIL in Europe CLIL provision as part of mainstream school Education CLIL provision within pilot projects Combination of CLIL provision as part of mainstream school education and within pilot projects No CLIL provision
  13. 13. Status of CLIL provision in primary and general secondary education, 2006/2007 CLIL in Europe
  14. 14. Status of CLIL provision in primary and general secondary education, 2010/2011 CLIL in Europe
  15. 15. Status of CLIL target languages used for CLIL in primary and general secondary education, 2010/2011 CLIL in Europe
  16. 16. Admission criteria for access to CLIL provision, 2010/2011 CLIL in Europe
  17. 17. Summary and conclusions 2012 CLIL in Europe • A varietyvariety of names for a variety of situations. • CLIL often part of school provision but notnot on a broad scalebroad scale. • Predominance of EnglishEnglish. • No clear preference for any particular subjects. • The need for teacher trainingteacher training more focused on CLIL. • Evaluation far from general practice but encouraging nonetheless.
  18. 18. CLIL in Catalonia PELE: Pla Experimental de Llengües Estrangeres PILE: Pla Integrat de Llengües Estrangeres El curs 2010-2011 hi havia 1.345 centres educatius que havien posat en marxa un pla experimental de llengües estrangeres (PELE) amb la finalitat de dinamitzar l’ensenyament i aprenentatge d’idiomes entre el seu alumnat. http://www.xtec.cat/alfresco/d/d/workspace/SpacesStore/4c7a8482-e9d7-4af6-9174- cb4a7324defa/dades_pele_sstt.pdf http://www.xtec.cat/alfresco/d/d/workspace/SpacesStore/4c7a8482-e9d7-4af6-9174- cb4a7324defa/dades_pele_sstt.pdf http://www.xtec.cat/alfresco/d/d/workspace/SpacesStore/9ffb4786-3021-4acd-b86d- eaff38182be9/Dades%20del%20Pla%20integrat%20de%20Llengues%20Estrangeres%20PILE.pdf http://www.xtec.cat/alfresco/d/d/workspace/SpacesStore/9ffb4786-3021-4acd-b86d- eaff38182be9/Dades%20del%20Pla%20integrat%20de%20Llengues%20Estrangeres%20PILE.pdf http://www.xtec.cat/web/projectes/llengues/pluri/pilehttp://www.xtec.cat/web/projectes/llengues/pluri/pile El curs 2012-2013, un total de 170 centres educatius han posat en marxa un pla integrat de llengües estrangeres (PILE) per a la millora del plurilingüisme efectiu de l'alumnat. Requereix de bons models lingüístics i d'un treball de qualitat a l'aula que esdevingui model de referència.
  19. 19. CLIL in Catalonia: Evolution
  20. 20. CLIL in Spain: References CATALONIA: Navés, Teresa / Victori, Mia 2010. CLIL in Catalonia: an Overview of Research Studies. In Lasagabaster, David / Ruiz de Zarobe, Yolanda (eds) CLIL in Spain: Implementation, Results and Teacher Training. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. BASQUE COUNTRY: Alonso, E., Campo, A., Grisaleñ a, J. (2007) Trilingual Students in Secondary School: A New Reality. Instituto Basco de Evaluación e Investigación Educativa ANDALUSIA: . Lorenzo, F., Casal, S., Moore, P. (2009) The Effects of Content and Language Integrated Learning in European Education: Key Findings from the Andalusian Bilingual Sections Evaluation Project. Applied Linguistics Advance Access published November 20, 2009. Applied Linguistics: 1–25. Oxford University Press 2009 . Plan de Fomento del Plurilingüísmo (2005). Hacia un nuevo modelo metodoló gico. Consejería de Educación. Junta de Andalucía. On www at http://www.juntadeandalucia.es/compromisos20082012/archivos_repos/0/140.pdf . GALICIA: San Isidro, F.X. (2009) CLIL: Integrando Linguas “a través” do Currículo. Consellería de Educación e Ordenación Universitaria. Xunta de Galicia. MADRID: Halbach, A., Fernández, R., Pena, C., García, A. (2005) La implantació n de proyectos educativos bilingües en la comunidad de Madrid: Las expectativas del profesorado anttes de iniciar el proyecto. Porta Linguarum 3, enero 2005, pp 161-173 ASTURIAS: Roza, B. et altri (2007) Good Practice in Content and Language Integrated Learning. BeCLIL Project. “Materiales para el aula”, Consejería de Educación y Ciencia, Gobierno de Asturias.
  21. 21. Most of the arguments in favour of CLIL come from Second Language Acquisition Research and show that CLIL: •(a) creates conditions for naturalistic language learning •(b) provides a purpose for language use in the classroom, •(c) has a positive effect on language learning by putting the emphasis on meaning rather than on form •(d) drastically increases the amount of exposure to the target language (Dalton-Puffer, 2007; Dalton-Puffer & Smit, 2007; Navés, 2002; Navés, 2009). Why was CLIL introduced in our schools? Benefits of CLIL:
  22. 22. Why was CLIL introduced in our schools? Benefits of CLIL:  The learning of a foreign language is seen as more attractive when we use linguistic resources that offer a means of acquiring information.  Metalinguistic and intellectual improvement: students are forced to use a greater variety of communication strategies.  Emphasis on the creative use of the language provides stimulation in the learning process.  CLIL increases the quantity and quality of exposition to the L2. (Víctor Pavó n Vázquez - University of Có rdoba (Spain) - II Encuentro formativo para profesores de inglés – From blackboards to whiteboards: from skills to competences Granada English Teachers Association, April 24th 2010)
  23. 23. Why was CLIL introduced in our schools? Benefits of CLIL:  Learning the language becomes more functional and communicative in a CLIL context.  CLIL encourages teachers to use a ‘learning by doing’ approach, as well as developing Multiple Intelligences.  The intercultural connection: language use develops positive attitudes towards other languages, people and cultures. (Víctor Pavó n Vázquez - University of Có rdoba (Spain) - II Encuentro formativo para profesores de inglés – From blackboards to whiteboards: from skills to competences Granada English Teachers Association, April 24th 2010)

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