Tank Training


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Tank Training

  1. 1. Foam Team Training Series “ Storage Tanks”
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>This training series has been designed to look at the basics of Foam firefighting and incorporate what a new firefighter to our Foam team would need to know. </li></ul><ul><li>These sessions while basic for the Foam Firefighter are not commonly known facts to any structural firefighter. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Contact Info <ul><li>Should you need any further information on Foam firefighting or have any further comments on these programs please contact the training programs officer on our contacts webpage. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Storage Tanks <ul><li>There EPA recognizes six primary types of storage vessels often found in industrial settings. </li></ul><ul><li>They are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed roof </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External floating roof </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Domed external floating roof </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal floating roof </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variable vapor space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Fixed Roof
  6. 6. Fixed Roof <ul><li>A normal fixed roof storage tank has a cylindrical steel shell with a fixed roof utilizing a frangible roof seam </li></ul><ul><li>The roof may be any shape, but will usually be cone, domed, or flat </li></ul><ul><li>They will often have an open vent or some type of pressure/vacuum vent to control vapor emissions </li></ul>
  7. 7. Fixed Roof <ul><li>Fixed roof designs are the cheapest to build and is considered to be the minimum requirements for storing organic liquids. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually constructed of steel, steel/fiberglass, or fiberglass/polyester </li></ul><ul><li>They usually contain 40,000 gallons or less of product </li></ul>
  8. 8. External Floating Roof
  9. 9. External Floating Roof <ul><li>This tank is usually an open topped cylindrical steel shell with a roof that floats on the surface of the stored liquid </li></ul><ul><li>The floating roof rises and falls with the level of the liquid contained in the tank keeping vapors to a minimum </li></ul><ul><li>The floating deck can float directly on the fluid (contact deck) or float just above (non-contact deck) </li></ul>
  10. 10. External Floating Deck <ul><li>Non-contact decks are the most commonly found </li></ul><ul><li>They can be problematic due to water and snow accumulation formed on the deck and must be drained regularly to prevent the deck from sinking into the product </li></ul><ul><li>They can be identified by the absence of a roof and roof vents </li></ul>
  11. 11. Domed External Floating Roof
  12. 12. Domed External Floating Tank <ul><li>These tanks have both the “internal” floating deck combined with a domed roof </li></ul><ul><li>This combination often comes from a retrofit of the older external floating tank being fitted with a dome </li></ul><ul><li>The deck itself helps to keep vapors down, and the dome helps to prevent wind, rain, and snow from impacting the deck </li></ul><ul><li>This tank can be identified by the dome and the presence of roof vents </li></ul>
  13. 13. Variable Vapor Space Tanks <ul><li>These tanks are equipped with expandable vapor reservoirs to accommodate vapor volume fluctuations from temperature and barometric changes. </li></ul><ul><li>While they can be used independently they are often connected with other tanks sharing the vapor spaces </li></ul>
  14. 14. Variable Vapor Space Tanks <ul><li>There are two types of these tanks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifter roof tanks – telescoping roofs that fit around the outside of the main tank wall and is closed by a wet seal or a dry seal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible diaphragm tanks – use flexible membranes to provide the expandable volume </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Pressure Tanks <ul><li>There are two types of pressure tanks being used: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low pressure (2.5 to 15 psig) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High pressure (>15psig) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pressure tanks are used to store organic liquids and gases with high vapor pressures. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Pressure Tanks <ul><li>They are equipped with a pressure/vacuum vent to helps to prevent loss from breathing and boiling loss from temperature and barometric changes </li></ul>
  17. 17. Conclusion <ul><li>It is imperative that you as a firefighter get out to your jurisdiction to identify exactly what types of tanks you are dealing with </li></ul><ul><li>Most plant managers welcome the opportunity to bring in the fire department for education on their equipment </li></ul>
  18. 18. Credits <ul><li>Photo credits to landandmarine.com </li></ul><ul><li>Tank information credit to epa.gov </li></ul>