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Microbiology: Microbial Ecology


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it was my report in microbiology...

just take consideration with my title...i just dont know what happened..

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Microbiology: Microbial Ecology

  1. 1. • it is the scientific study of interactions among organisms and their environment, such as the interactions organis ms have with each other and with their abiotic environment.
  2. 2. • Is the study of numerous interrelationships between microorganisms and the world around them; how microbes interact with other microbes how microbes interact with organisms other than microbes and how microbes interact with the non- living world around them
  3. 3. (Symbiotic Relationship) • Is defined as the living together in more or less intimate association or close union of two dissimilar organisms • The organisms that live together in such relationship are called Symbionts.
  4. 4. Neutralism • Is used to describe a symbiotic relationship in which neither symbionts is affected by the relationship. • Reflects a situation in which different microorganisms occupy the same ecological niche but have absolutely no effect on each other.
  5. 5. Commensalism • an association between two organisms in which one benefits and the other derives neither benefit nor harm. • Ex. Human and indigenous Microflora
  6. 6. • symbiotic relationship between individuals of different species in which both individuals benefit from the association. • In this type of symbiosis, both organisms of different species rely on one another for nutrients, protection and other life functions, hence, they are usually found living in close proximity.
  7. 7. • Example: Eschericha coli, which obtains nutrients from food materials ingested by the host and produces vitamins (such as Vitamin K) which are used by the host.
  8. 8. Parasitism • parasitism, relationship between two species of plants or animals in which one benefits at the expense of the other, sometimes without killing it.
  9. 9. Synergism (Synergetic Infection) • the interaction or cooperation of two or more organizations, substances, or other agents to produce a combined effect greater than the sum of their separate effects.
  10. 10. Indigenous Microflora of Humans
  11. 11. Indigenous Microflora or Indigenous Microbiota • “normal Flora” • Includes all the microbes (bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses) that reside on or within that person.
  12. 12. • It has been estimated that our bodies are composed of about 10 trillion cells (including nerve cells, muscle cells, epithelial cells, etc.), and that we have about 10 times that many microbes that live on and within our bodies (10x10 trillion = 100 trillion) • It has also been estimated that our indigenous microflora is composed of between 500 and 1000 different species.
  13. 13. Eyes and Ears Skin Mouth and upper Respiratory tract Gastrointestinal tract Genitourinary tract (vagina, urethra)
  14. 14. Microflora of the skin
  15. 15. • The resident microflora of the skin consists primarily of bacteria and fungi – approximately 30 different types. • The most common bacteria on the skin are species of: - Staphylococcus, - Micrococcus, -Corynebacterium, - Propionibacterium,-P.acnes- causes acne. -Brevibacterium, -and Acinetobacter.
  16. 16. • • • • • • • • • • • • Staphylococcus aureus Acinetobacter spp Bacillus spp Candida albicans Corynebacterium spp Corynebacterium parvum Demodex folliculorum Enterobacter cloacae Epidermophyton floccosum Micrococcus spp Micrococcus luteus Mycobacterium spp • • • • • • • • • • • • Neisseria spp Peptostreptococcus spp Malassezia ovale Propionibacterium spp Propionibacterium acnes Pseudomonas aeruginosa Sarcina spp Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus epidermidis Staphylococcus haemolyticus Streptococcus viridans Trichophyton spp
  17. 17. Microflora of the eyes and ears
  18. 18. Microflora in the Gastrointetinal Tract
  19. 19. Binomial name Location Achromobacter spp Acidaminococcus fermentans Acinetobacter calcoaceticus Actinomyces spp Actinomyces viscosus Actinomyces naeslundii Aeromonas spp Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Anaerobiospirillum spp Alcaligenes faecalis Arachnia propionica Bacillus spp Bacteroides spp Bacteroides gingivalis Bacteroides fragilis Bacteroides intermedius Bacteroides melaninogenicus Large intestine, small intestine (Ileon) Large intestine Large intestine Amygdala Mouth Mouth Large intestine, small intestine (Ileon) Mouth Feces Large intestine, small intestine (Ileon) Mouth Large intestine Mouth, amygdala Mouth General distribution Mouth Mouth, feces Bacteroides pneumosintes Pharynx
  20. 20. Microflora in the Respiratory Tract
  21. 21. Binomial name Acinetobacter spp Burkholderia cepacia complex Campylobacter sputorum Candida albicans Cardiobacterium spp Chlamydophila pneumoniae Citrobacter freundii Eikenella corrodens Haemophilus spp Haemophilus parainfluenzae Haemophilus paraphrophilus Kingella spp Kingella kingae Moraxella spp Moraxella catarrhalis Mycoplasma orale Mycoplasma pneumoniae Neisseria spp Neisseria cinerea Neisseria elongata Location Nasopharynx Lung Nasopharynx Pharynx Nose Lung Throat General distribution Nasopharynx Pharynx Pharynx Upper respiratory Tract Upper respiratory Tract Nasopharynx Nasopharynx Oropharynx Respiratory epithelium Nasopharynx Nasopharynx Pharynx
  22. 22. Microflora in the Genitourinary Tract
  23. 23. Binomial name Acinetobacter spp Bacteroides spp Bifidobacterium spp Location Anterior urethra, vagina External genitalia Vagina Candida albicans Anterior urethra, external genitalia, vagina Chlamydia trachomatis Urethra, vagina, fallopian tubes, prostate gland Clostridiums pp Vagina Corynebacterium spp Anterior urethra, external genitalia, vagina Enterobacteriaceae Anterior urethra, external genitalia, vagina Neisseria gonorrhoeae Urethra, vagina, prostate gland Streptococcus viridans Anterior urethra, external genitalia, vagina Eikenella corrodens Streptococcus anginosus Staphylococcus aureus Gardnerella vaginalis Mycoplasma hominis Mobiluncus curtisii Mobiluncus mulieris General distribution General distribution Perineum Female reproductive system Cervix, vagina Vagina Vagina
  24. 24. • Genitourinary infections fall into two main categories: (1) primary infections due to sexually transmitted pathogenic microorganisms and (2) infections due to members of the resident flora. Genital infections are uncommon in children and increase dramatically in sexually active adults, in whom sexually transmitted diseases are the second most prevalent group of reportable communicable illness in North America. Sexually transmitted pathogens include parasites (Trichomonas vaginalis), bacteria (Treponema pallidum, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Haemophilus ducreyi), and viruses (Herpes simplex virus, human papillomavirus, human immunodeficiency virus). Genital infections due to the fungus Candida albicans or to members of the endogenous bacterial flora (Bacteroides fragilis and members of the family Enterobacteriaceae) are not known to be sexually transmitted. Bacterial vaginosis occurs when the balance of vaginal flora is upset.
  25. 25. • The urinary tract and urine are normally sterile. Numerous mechanical and biologic processes ensure that microorganisms do not enter the urinary tract. Women are more susceptible to urinary infections because the female urethra is short and because the area around the urethral opening is colonized with potential pathogens (e.g. E coli and E faecalis).
  27. 27. Microbial antagonism • “microbes versus microbes” • Our indigenous microflora serve a beneficial role by preventing other microbes from becoming established in or colonizing a particular anatomic location • Microbial antagonism is a property that enables a microorganism to kill, injure or slow down the growth of a different microorganism. Bacterial flora benefits the microbial antagonism host. It does this by preventing overgrowth of harmful organisms.
  28. 28. Opportunistic Pathogen • an organism that exists harmlessly as part of the normal human body environment and does not become a health threat until the body's immune system fails. • Organisms that are hanging around, waiting for the opportunity to cause infections
  29. 29. • Agricultural microbiology is a branch of microbiology dealing with plant-associated microbes and plant and animal diseases. It also deals with the microbiology of soil fertility, such as microbial degradation of organic matter and soil nutrient transformations.
  30. 30. Microbes and the Cycles of Elements of Life
  31. 31. The Nitrogen Cycle
  32. 32. CO2 Cycle
  33. 33. Soil Microorganisms
  34. 34. Bacteria • more dominant group of microorganisms in the soil and equal to one half of the microbial biomass in soil. Population 100,000 to several hundred millions for gram of soil Autochthnous - Zymogenous groups. Majority are Heterotrophs. (Common soil bacteria - Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Clostridium, Micrococcus).
  35. 35. • - intermediate group between bacteria and fungi. Numerous and widely distributed in soil. Abundance is next to bacteria. 104 - 108/g soil. 70% of soil actinomycetes are Streptomyces. Many of them are known to produce antibiotics. Population increases with depth of soil.
  36. 36. Fungi • More numerous in surface layers of wellaerated and cultivated soils-dominant in acid soils. Common genera in soil are Aspergillus, Mucor, Penicillium Trichoderma, Alternaria, Rhizopus. Algae – found in most of the soils in number ranges from 100 to 10,000 per g
  37. 37. • Protozoa: Unicellular – population ranges from 10,000 to 100,000 per g of soil. Most of the soil forms are flagellates, amoebae or ciliates. Derive their nutrition by devouring soil bacteria. Abundant in upper larger of the soil. They are regulating the biological equilibrium in soil.
  38. 38. Importance of soil microorganisms • Involved in nutrient transformation process • Decomposition of resistant components of plant and animal tissue • Role in microbial antagonism • Participate in humus formation • Predator to nematodes • Surface blooming reduces erosion losses • Improves soil structure • Maintenance of biological equilibrium •