NAA Conference Presentation

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Resident\'s interest in installing rain gardens and rain barrels

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NAA Conference Presentation

  1. 1. A NOVEL MOTIVATOR FOR ENGAGING PARK NEIGHBORS IN ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION PROJECTS<br />Carin E. Vadala & Robert D. Bixler: Clemson University<br />Terry L. Robison: Cleveland Metroparks<br />
  2. 2. Introduction<br />Issues of flooding, erosion, pesticides washed into the river, invasive species and nuisance wildlife<br />Residents whose property is either adjacent or near park boundaries can play a role in reducing these problems<br />Residents can help slow storm water and reduce flooding and erosion by installing rain gardens and rain barrels on their property.<br />
  3. 3. Introduction<br />
  4. 4. Introduction<br />
  5. 5. Problem Statement<br />Since altruistic environmental attitudes have fallen short as explanations for Environmentally Responsible Behaviors (ERB), self-interests will be used to further predict ERB. An understanding of stakeholder’s self-interests, intrinsic satisfaction and competence may help urban park reserves construct a situation where ERB becomes the most reasonable choice.<br />
  6. 6. First Generation ERB<br />Self report (Cordano, Welcomer & Scherer, 2003; Dunlap, Van Liere, Mertig & Jones, 2000; Geller & Lasley, 1985; Noe & Snow, 1990)<br />Moral norm activation of altruism (Guagano, Stern & Dietz, 1995; Schwartz, 1973)<br />Attitudes, subjective norms and intentions to behave(Azjen, 1991)<br />Self report and observation (Corral-Verdugo, 1997)<br />
  7. 7. Second Generation ERB<br />Value-Belief-Norm, moving beyond measuring attitudes and behavioral intentions (Stern, Dietz, Kalof & Guagnano, 1995; Stern, Dietz, Abel, Guagnano & Kalof, 1999)<br />Multiply determined motivations and different types of environmental outcomes (DeYoung, 2000; Stern & Dietz, 1994)<br />Typology of four types of environmental behavior and four sets of causal variables (Stern, 2000)<br />
  8. 8. Behavior Typology<br />Types of environmental behavior <br />environmental activism, non-activist behaviors in a public sphere, private-sphere environmentalism, and other environmentally significant behaviors<br />Four sets of causal variables <br />attitudinal factors, contextual forces, personal capabilities, and habit or routine<br />(Stern, 2000)<br />
  9. 9. Evaluating Behavior<br />Outcome-based measures<br />Response to incentives, coercion and reinforcement<br />Context-based measures <br />Behavior is result of context, setting or environmental motivation<br />Useful for measuring whether ERB stems from intrinsic motivation and non-environmental motivations<br />(De Young, 2000)<br />
  10. 10. Motivations<br />ERB driven by self-interest, intrinsic satisfaction, frugality, direct participation, luxury and access to novel things, competence<br />Avoidance of situations where people are not competent<br />Knowing and doing are two different things (Corral-Verdugo, 1997)<br />(De Young, 2000)<br />
  11. 11. Methods<br />Two-phase design<br />Focus group<br />Survey methods<br />750 Residents selected from seven urban park reserves in Northeastern Ohio, usable sample of 686<br />Modified Dillman approach yielded a return of 364 surveys, response rate 53%<br />
  12. 12. Methods<br />Created a variable to identify whether participants enjoyed working with their hands (alpha=.86)<br />Two variables measured concern for issues in the urban park reserves <br />Concern for pesticides and fertilizers, plants spreading (alpha=.89)<br />Concern for frequent and excessive flooding (alpha=.88)<br />Enjoyment of gardening (alpha=.78)<br />Logistic regression<br />
  13. 13. Results<br />Logistic Regression coefficient **p&lt;.05, *p&lt;.1 (odds ratio in parentheses)<br />
  14. 14. Hands-on personality<br />Rain garden<br />Low value: 21% more likely to install a rain garden<br />Average value: 26% more likely to install a rain garden<br />High value: 35% more likely to install a rain garden<br />Rain barrel- not predictive<br />
  15. 15. Concern for pesticides<br />Rain garden<br />Least concerned: 19% probability to install a rain garden <br />Average concern: 27% probability to install a rain garden<br />Highly concerned: 38% probability to install a rain garden<br />Rain barrel<br /><ul><li>Least concerned: 23% probability to install a rain barrel
  16. 16. Average on concern: 31% probability to install a rain barrel
  17. 17. Highly concerned: 39% probability to install a rain barrel</li></li></ul><li>Gardening for recreation<br />Rain garden<br />Least prefer gardening: 15% probability to install a rain garden<br />Average interest in gardening: 28% probability to install a rain garden<br />High interest in gardening: 45% probability to install a rain garden<br />Rain barrel<br />Least prefer gardening: 18% probability to install a rain barrel<br />Average interest in garden: 31% probability to install a rain barrel<br />High interest in gardening: were 48% probability to install a rain barrel<br />
  18. 18. Summary of results<br />Results strongly suggest that environmental concerns and enjoyment of the leisure activity gardening motivate an interest in installing rain barrels and rain gardens. (De Young, 2000; Stern & Dietz, 1994)<br />De Young and Stern’s notion of multiply determined behaviors is supported by the lack of predictive power of flooding as an environmental concern and the self interest in gardening. (DeYoung, 2000; Stern, 2000)<br />
  19. 19. Implications<br />Participation in (some) outdoor recreation positively associated with environmental concern, social worlds would overlap (Teisl & O’brien, 2003; Unruh, 1980; Choi, Loomis & Ditton, 1994)<br />Foster leisure interests (IsoAhola, 1979; Tinsley & Tinsley, 1986)<br />Practitioners should analyze desired ERB in terms of attitudes, knowledge, self interest behaviors and related constraints.<br />

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