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EQUIPMENTS USED IN 
DISPERSE SYSTEM 
Presented by: 
L.Pavani 
Roll No:256212886018 
M.Pharm 1st yr 
Pharmaceutics 
Guided ...
Definition: 
 Dispersion system is defined as a 
heterogenous two phase system in which 
internal (dispersed,discontinous...
Dispersion equipments 
A. Mixers 
B. High speed dispersers 
C. Rotor stator mixers 
D. Combination mixers 
E. In- line mix...
Mixers 
 Propeller mixers 
 Turbine mixers 
 Anchor mixers 
 Scraped surface agitators 
 Counter rotation
Propeller mixers 
 The most often used mixing implement is marine 
propeller mixer. 
 These machines use rounded,pitched...
PROPELLER MIXERS 
Marine Propeller mixer 
Clamp mounted 
portable mixer
Turbine mixers 
 The most versatile of all mixers in the entire span of 
mixing equipments are the axial and radial flow ...
Anchor mixer 
 It is low speed and low capability 
 The anchor agitator is a slow 
(50rpm) device whose sole 
function i...
Scrapped surface agitators 
 A flexible or movable 
blades are attached to 
the anchor for the 
purpose of actually 
scra...
Counterrotation agitator 
 It consists of anchor agitator 
and counterrotating set of 
cross bars provides excellent 
ble...
High speed Dispersers 
It is also called as saw blade disperser 
 This machine consists of a variable speed shaft 
connec...
High speed disperser 
Limitations: 
 Air incorporation is 
another problem so it 
is best used for 
suspensions and not 
...
Rotor/stator mixers 
 This mixing machine uses an impeller that is 
installed at a close tolerance to a stationary 
housi...
RADIAL FLOW WITH 
STATOR ROTATING 
STATOR 
AXIAL FLOW ROTOR/STATOR 
MIXER
COMBINATION MIXERS 
 Better control of temperature and pressures 
 Eliminates line loses caused by pumping from 
tank to...
Achor plus rotor/stator 
 It is combination of simple anchor 
agitator with a rotor/stator mixer 
 It provides a high sh...
Anchor plus disperser 
 It is combination of 
high speed 
disperser with an 
anchor agitator 
 It works well on 
medium ...
Counterrotating with coaxial 
rotor/stator 
 This design is known as triple action mixer,combines the 
high viscosity mix...
Counterrotating with coaxial 
rotor/stator 
Advantages: 
 Handles wide range of 
viscosities from water thin 
to as high ...
IN LINE MIXERS 
1.Rotor/stator mixer disperser emulsifier 
2.Colloidal mill 
3.Piston homogenizer 
4.Ultrasonic vibrating ...
Rotor stator mixer emulsifier 
disperser 
 These mixers acting as submerged pumps 
design can be made that places the 
ro...
Stage 1 
Stage 2 
Stage 3
Colloid mill 
 It is used to disperse the solids into liquids and 
to emulsify liquid-liquid systems. 
 These generally ...
Colloidal mill
Advantages : 
 Shear rates high than in rotor/stator 
machines 
 Colloidal mill produces emulsions and 
suspensions with...
Piston homogenizers 
 It is the most powerfull device for producing 
emulsions and suspensions 
 It uses high power posi...
Piston homogenizers 
 It having continuous 
Capabilities of 2500L/hr at 
15hp to 50,000L/hr at 
150hp 
Limitations: 
 Th...
Ultrasonic vibrating 
homogenizer 
 Has similarity with high pressure 
homogenizer effective device for dispersing 
and e...
Ultrasonic vibrating 
homogenizer 
 Capacities and 
pressures of systems 
range from laboratory 
units, producing 4- 
10L...
Continuous dual feed system configuration using 
ultrasonic homogenizer
microfluidizer 
 This device uses a high pressure positive 
displacement pump operating at a pressure of 500- 
20,000psig...
 The micro streams are then brought together in 
an impingement area through which all of the 
product must flow 
 At th...
Flow path through the microfluidizer
Low pressure cyclone emulsifier 
 It is used for formation of emulsions and 
suspensions 
 the shear arises from the dif...
Working : 
 Product enters through 
tangential entry port 
 Product is forced to 
circulate in concentric 
layers toward...
Homogenizer/Extruder 
 It is a high pressure homogenizer with an 
adjustable valve having production capacities 
from 8mL...
Static mixers 
 A true low shear and low energy requirement 
device for emulsifying immiscible liquid 
mixture is the sta...
 These simple devices are extensively used for 
the preparation of unstable emulsions for liquid-liquid 
extraction purpo...
Nonchemical disperse 
processing 
Critical fluids liposome process: 
 Near critical or super critical fluid solvents with...
 When these fluids compressed at conditions 
above their critical temperature and 
pressure,these substances become fluid...
Fine suspensions and size 
reduction equipment 
Types: 
1. Triple roll mill 
2. Ball mill 
3. Agitated bead mill
Triple roll mill: 
• Disperse small tightly bound agglomerates 
and hard discrete particles 
 Particles are subjected to ...
BALL MILL 
 It is used for size reduction fine solid discrete 
particles or for deagglomeration of very tightly 
bound ag...
Ball mill 
Limitations 
Typically time consuming process,milling time are 
often measured in days.
Agitated bead mills 
 A Modernized improvement of the ball mill is the 
agitated bead mill 
 The bead mill uses a charge...
 The premix is pumped through the 
housing.There is a high probability that each 
particle must be repeatedly subjected t...
Reference 
 Pharmaceutical dosage forms,disperse 
systems volume 3 by 
Lackman,Lieberman,Marcel Dekker,NY.pg 
no:291-362 ...
Equipments used in dispersed systems
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Equipments used in dispersed systems

  1. 1. EQUIPMENTS USED IN DISPERSE SYSTEM Presented by: L.Pavani Roll No:256212886018 M.Pharm 1st yr Pharmaceutics Guided by: Dr.S.B.Bhanja M.Pharm,Ph.D
  2. 2. Definition:  Dispersion system is defined as a heterogenous two phase system in which internal (dispersed,discontinous ) phase is distributed or dispersed within the continuous (external) phase or vehicle.  The internal and external phase may be solids, liquids and also gases. Eg.suspensions,emulsions,aerosols
  3. 3. Dispersion equipments A. Mixers B. High speed dispersers C. Rotor stator mixers D. Combination mixers E. In- line mixers F. Non- mechanical disperse processing G. Fine suspension and size reduction equipment
  4. 4. Mixers  Propeller mixers  Turbine mixers  Anchor mixers  Scraped surface agitators  Counter rotation
  5. 5. Propeller mixers  The most often used mixing implement is marine propeller mixer.  These machines use rounded,pitched,three blade design that produces mostly axial flow  They provide good flow and blending capabilities in small batches of low to medium viscosities  Propellers mixers can be installed on vertical centerline or through the side wall of process vessel  They can be operated at around 300-400rpm  These are used mostly for liquid-liquid blending applications in some easily producible suspensions.
  6. 6. PROPELLER MIXERS Marine Propeller mixer Clamp mounted portable mixer
  7. 7. Turbine mixers  The most versatile of all mixers in the entire span of mixing equipments are the axial and radial flow turbines  Turbines mixers can be made to handle huge batches,evenupto 5,00,00gal & suitable for emulsification process. Radial Flow turbine Axial flow turbine
  8. 8. Anchor mixer  It is low speed and low capability  The anchor agitator is a slow (50rpm) device whose sole function is to rotate the contents of a batch in a radial direction without providing any significant shear  They are typically designed to be able to withstand a maximum viscosity beyond which they might actually blend or break.
  9. 9. Scrapped surface agitators  A flexible or movable blades are attached to the anchor for the purpose of actually scrapping the side walls,they are known as scraped surface agitators  These are definitely required in emulsification equipment where heat transfers are necessary
  10. 10. Counterrotation agitator  It consists of anchor agitator and counterrotating set of cross bars provides excellent blending  These works well on materials with viscosities from 5000-25,000cps  By installing a stationary baffle,some mixing capabilities are improved
  11. 11. High speed Dispersers It is also called as saw blade disperser  This machine consists of a variable speed shaft connected to an impeller with a serrated edge  The tip speed is set around 4000 ft/min  The diameter of impeller should be 1/3 of diameter of vessel  The impeller should be located one impeller diameter off the bottom of vessel  It can deagglomerating particles when the viscosities between 10,000 to 20,000cps. Application: It is used for pigment dispersion,dye stuffs, carbon dispersion and paints
  12. 12. High speed disperser Limitations:  Air incorporation is another problem so it is best used for suspensions and not for emulsions
  13. 13. Rotor/stator mixers  This mixing machine uses an impeller that is installed at a close tolerance to a stationary housing,which baffles and restrict the flow caused by the rotation of the impeller in the liquid.  Particles caught between rotor & stator are crushed and separated by mechanical action of the impeller.  They are three types: 1. Radial flow with stator 2. Rotating stator 3. Axial flow rotor/stator mixers
  14. 14. RADIAL FLOW WITH STATOR ROTATING STATOR AXIAL FLOW ROTOR/STATOR MIXER
  15. 15. COMBINATION MIXERS  Better control of temperature and pressures  Eliminates line loses caused by pumping from tank to tank  Saves floor space  Simplifies the process, save labor costs Types : Anchor plus rotor/stator Anchor plus disperser Counter rotating with coaxial rotor/stator
  16. 16. Achor plus rotor/stator  It is combination of simple anchor agitator with a rotor/stator mixer  It provides a high shear rates for dispersion and emulsification  It is beneficial if there is requirement to pull down powders from the top Limitation:  It is difficult to design the anchor such that it allows the placement of the high shear mixer close to the bottom of the vessel.
  17. 17. Anchor plus disperser  It is combination of high speed disperser with an anchor agitator  It works well on medium to high viscosity suspensions
  18. 18. Counterrotating with coaxial rotor/stator  This design is known as triple action mixer,combines the high viscosity mixing capabilities of counterrotating axial flow cross bars with a standard anchor type scraped surface agitator and also with a high speed rotor/stator mixer  It is capable of generating fine dispersions and fine droplets of the internal phase for stable emulsions  It can operated at viscosity of 50,000cps  They are always jacketed for heating and cooling because it is necessary in case of preparation of creams and ointments
  19. 19. Counterrotating with coaxial rotor/stator Advantages:  Handles wide range of viscosities from water thin to as high as 1million cps  Disperse and emulsifies very efficiently  Provides shortest mixing time Disadvantages:  Difficult to clean due to complicated design
  20. 20. IN LINE MIXERS 1.Rotor/stator mixer disperser emulsifier 2.Colloidal mill 3.Piston homogenizer 4.Ultrasonic vibrating homogenizer 5.Micro fluidizer 6.Low pressure cyclone emulsifier 7.Homogenizer/Extruders 8.Static mixer
  21. 21. Rotor stator mixer emulsifier disperser  These mixers acting as submerged pumps design can be made that places the rotor/stator in a pump housing and allows for product to be pumped through itself.  The product inside the rotor/stator mixing pump,the droplets and particles subjected to a wide variety of high shear rates.  It is designed with fine tolerance rotor/stator gaps that promotes high shear rates and high amount of shear per pass through.
  22. 22. Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3
  23. 23. Colloid mill  It is used to disperse the solids into liquids and to emulsify liquid-liquid systems.  These generally used as polishing machines for emulsions or suspensions because they produce fine particle or droplet size product to enhance a products stability.  The rotor/stator gap is generally set between 0.030 & 0.001 inch.  They are operated at speed of 3600 rpm  The rotor diameter is 10-30cm provides flow rates in the area of 4000-6000L/hr depending upon the viscosity.
  24. 24. Colloidal mill
  25. 25. Advantages :  Shear rates high than in rotor/stator machines  Colloidal mill produces emulsions and suspensions with particle size distribution smaller than the particle sizes obtainable using fixed gap rotor/stator mixers. Limitations :  Flow rates lower than in rotor/stator machines  Not used for abrasive products
  26. 26. Piston homogenizers  It is the most powerfull device for producing emulsions and suspensions  It uses high power positive displacement piston type pump to produce pressure of 3000-10,000 psig and then force the premixed product through a specially designed restricting wall where a extremely high shear forces are exerted  Here turbulence and high shear are the major parameters in size reduction
  27. 27. Piston homogenizers  It having continuous Capabilities of 2500L/hr at 15hp to 50,000L/hr at 150hp Limitations:  They cannot handle the product feed above 200cps  High maintanence cost and down time  Lack product homogenity and batch to batch variability
  28. 28. Ultrasonic vibrating homogenizer  Has similarity with high pressure homogenizer effective device for dispersing and emulsifying  It uses a positive displacement pump to force the premixed liquid through an elliptical opening at a speed of 100m/sec  This high speed flow impinges on to the edge of blade shaped obstacle called a vibrating knife.
  29. 29. Ultrasonic vibrating homogenizer  Capacities and pressures of systems range from laboratory units, producing 4- 10L/min at 1200-1700 psig requiring 2-5hp,to full scale productions units with capacities of upto 450L/min at 350psig requiring 60hp.
  30. 30. Continuous dual feed system configuration using ultrasonic homogenizer
  31. 31. microfluidizer  This device uses a high pressure positive displacement pump operating at a pressure of 500- 20,000psig which accelerate the process flow upto 500m/min through the interaction chamber  The interaction chamber consists of small channels known as micro channels having diameter narrow as 50μm and cause the flow of product to occur as very thin sheets.  The configuration of micro channels within the interaction chamber ressembles Y-shaped flow streams in which the process stream divides into these micro channels,creating two separate micro streams
  32. 32.  The micro streams are then brought together in an impingement area through which all of the product must flow  At the impingement area the collision of the two high speed flow streams in a very tight spot creates various droplet size reduction and different mixing mechanisms such a cavitation,implosion,shears and turbulence  The micro fluidizer technology satisfy the requirements for producing finest emulsions known as micro emulsions
  33. 33. Flow path through the microfluidizer
  34. 34. Low pressure cyclone emulsifier  It is used for formation of emulsions and suspensions  the shear arises from the difference in the velocity of the fluid,as the fluid travels in a spiral towards the center  They operates in the 200psig and capacities of 7.5-225L/min.  The recommended viscosity limit is 1-2000cps.  They are capable of producing emulsions in the 2-10μm range.
  35. 35. Working :  Product enters through tangential entry port  Product is forced to circulate in concentric layers towards the center and ends of the chamber  Shear arises from the difference in the velocity of fluid,as the fluid travels in a spiral towards the center Cross section of flow path through the interaction chamber
  36. 36. Homogenizer/Extruder  It is a high pressure homogenizer with an adjustable valve having production capacities from 8mL/hr to 12000mL/hr  A positive displacement pump produces pressure up to 30,000psig.  The apparatus capable of producing fine emulsions and liposomal dispersions
  37. 37. Static mixers  A true low shear and low energy requirement device for emulsifying immiscible liquid mixture is the static mixture.  It is also called as pipe line mixture,this device is actually a series of specially designed baffles in a cylindrical pipe.
  38. 38.  These simple devices are extensively used for the preparation of unstable emulsions for liquid-liquid extraction purposes  Size distributions obtainable range from 100- 1000μm
  39. 39. Nonchemical disperse processing Critical fluids liposome process:  Near critical or super critical fluid solvents with or without polar co-solvents for the formation of uniform and stable liposomes having high encapsulation efficiences.  Super critical fluids can be uniquely used to encapsulate very hydrophobic molecules  Super critical fluids are gases such as carbon dioxide & propane
  40. 40.  When these fluids compressed at conditions above their critical temperature and pressure,these substances become fluids and ability to dissolve other materials.  The gaseous characteristics increases mass transfer rates,thereby significantly reducing processing time.  Small added amounts of visible polar co-solvents such as alcohol can be used to adjust polarity and to maximize the selectivity and capacity of the solvents
  41. 41. Fine suspensions and size reduction equipment Types: 1. Triple roll mill 2. Ball mill 3. Agitated bead mill
  42. 42. Triple roll mill: • Disperse small tightly bound agglomerates and hard discrete particles  Particles are subjected to High shear Mechanical crushing Smearing
  43. 43. BALL MILL  It is used for size reduction fine solid discrete particles or for deagglomeration of very tightly bound agglomerates.  The machine consists of cylindrical drum into which a charge of heavy spherical balls usually metal or ceramic is loaded along with the components of the dispersion.
  44. 44. Ball mill Limitations Typically time consuming process,milling time are often measured in days.
  45. 45. Agitated bead mills  A Modernized improvement of the ball mill is the agitated bead mill  The bead mill uses a charge of inert small balls to 2- 8mm diameter  Media mill- if beads are ceramic  Shot mill- if beads are steel  Sand mill- if grains of sand are used  The Design consist of a cylinder which can be either vertical or horizontal,that has a high speed agitator,which is capable of fluidizing the charge of beads,causing them to collide at very high speed.
  46. 46.  The premix is pumped through the housing.There is a high probability that each particle must be repeatedly subjected to the high stresses that result when the beads collide with each other or the high speed impeller  Agitated bead mill is used in pigment dispersion industry due to its fine solids grinding and dispersing capabilities.It is not often used in pharmaceutical industry except when particle size requirements falls below 10μm.
  47. 47. Reference  Pharmaceutical dosage forms,disperse systems volume 3 by Lackman,Lieberman,Marcel Dekker,NY.pg no:291-362  Pharmaceutical engineering(principles & practices) by C.V.S. Subrahmanyam.pg.no:155,161,229.
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