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Chocolate's dark side


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Chocolate's dark side

  1. 1. Chocolate’s Dark Side Guy Hydrick 14 January 2011 MESPOM 2010-2012
  2. 4. Global Cocoa Trade Annual value of cocoa trade globally: $6 billion Annual value of chocolate consumed in the US: $13 billion Source: UNCTAD 2006 Consumption by Country Production by Country
  3. 5. Cocoa Production in West Africa <ul><li>The Ivory Coast produces roughly 40% of the world’s chocolate </li></ul><ul><li>Cocoa accounts for over 30% of export revenues of Cote d’Ivoire and Ghana </li></ul><ul><li>Over 600,000 cocoa farms in Cote d’Ivoire </li></ul>
  4. 6. Child Slave Labor <ul><li>Trafficking: &quot;the illegal and clandestine movement of persons across national and international borders. . . With the end goal of forcing women and children into. . .Economically oppressive and exploitative situations for profit…&quot; (UNICEF) </li></ul><ul><li>Over 200,000 trafficked children work in West Africa </li></ul><ul><li>An estimated 15,000 are working as slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Most are from Mali; some also from Ghana, Benin, Togo, Burkina Faso (Chanthavong 2002) </li></ul>
  5. 7. Child Slave Labor <ul><li>Began to gain attention in the late 1990’s: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UNICEF Report, 1998 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Taste of Slavery: How Your Chocolate May be Tainted&quot;, 2001 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mandatory “slave-free” labeling amendment proposed for 2001 U.S. Senate Agriculture Appropriations Bill </li></ul><ul><li>CMA lobbied intensely with the B. Dole (R) and G. Michell (D) as allies (Robbins 2010, Madden 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Slave-free” amendment never reached senate advisory committee House-Senate conference committee </li></ul>
  6. 8. <ul><li>Protocol for the growing and processing of cocoa beans and their derivative products in a manner that complies with ILO convention 182 concerning the prohibition and immediate action for the elimination of the worst forms of child labor </li></ul>
  7. 9. Harkin-Engel Protocol <ul><li>Key Action Plan: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public Statement of Need for and Terms of an Action Plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formation of Multi-sectoral Advisement Groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signed Joint Statement of Child Labor to be Witnessed at the ILO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memorandum of Cooperation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishment of Joint Foundation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building Towards Credible Standards </li></ul></ul>
  8. 10. Harkin-Engel Protocol
  9. 11. Harkin-Engel Protocol <ul><li>Based on ILO Convention 182 </li></ul><ul><li>Non-binding </li></ul><ul><li>Voluntary labeling scheme to be introduced by 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Signed in 2001 by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. Senators T. Harkin (D) and H. Kohl (D), and Rep. E. Engel (D) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International Labor Organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chocolate Manufacturers Association </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ambassador of Ivory Coast to US </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Consumer League </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Child Labor Coalition </li></ul></ul>
  10. 12. Harkin-Engel: Effect <ul><li>Labeling scheme not introduced by 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>ILO files lawsuit on against CMA on behalf of a class of Malian child laborers 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Verification Working Group discontinued 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>CMA lobbied for 3 year extension </li></ul><ul><li>Labeling scheme still not introduced by 2008 </li></ul>
  11. 13. Today <ul><li>2007: “Likewise, children from neighboring countries such as Burkina Faso, Togo and Mali are brought to Côte d'Ivoire to work in its robust cocoa farming industry, among other outlets for child labour. Their rights are not respected and they are exposed to wide-ranging exploitation and abuse” - UNICEF Representative in Cote d’Ivoire </li></ul><ul><li>2008: “little progress has been made” - Fortune Magazine </li></ul><ul><li>2010: &quot;the industry is still far from achieving its target…by the end of 2010…and the majority of children exposed to the worst forms of child labor remain unreached.&quot; - Tulane University Report </li></ul>
  12. 16. Thank You. Thank you!
  13. 17. References