James JoyceA portrait of the Artist as a Young Man and UlyssesJames Joyce.
• A Portrait of the Artist as a YoungMan: a semi-autobiographical novel,first serialized in the literary periodicalThe Egoist from 1914 to 1915, andthen published in book form in 1916.• It is divided into five chapters dealingwith the spiritual evolution of StephenDedalus, a fictional alter-ego of Joyce,from childhood to maturity.1. A Portrait of the Artist as a Young ManJames Joyce – UlyssesA contemporary edition of A Portrait of theArtist as a Young Man.Only Connect ... New Directions
The importance of theindefinite article “A” the novel is only one of the possibleinterpretations of a subject. The setting in place Dublin“When the soul of a manis born in this country,there are nets flung at itto hold it back fromflight. You talk to me ofnationality, language,religion. I shall try to flyby those nets.”(From chapter 5)1. A Portrait of the Artist as a Young ManJames Joyce – UlyssesOnly Connect ... New Directions
1. A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man“When the soul of a manis born in this country,there are nets flung at itto hold it back fromflight. You talk to me ofnationality, language,religion. I shall try to flyby those nets.”(From chapter 5) Like Stephen1. Joyce was the son of a religiousmother and a financially inept father.2. Joyce was the eldest of ten childrenand received his education at Jesuitschools.3. Joyce had early experiences withprostitutes during his teenage yearsand struggled with questions of faith.4. Joyce left Ireland to pursue thelife of a poet and writer.James Joyce – UlyssesOnly Connect ... New Directions
His nameStephen the name of theChristian martyr.He is a martyr to artDedalus the mythologicalcharacter.He escapes from thesocial, political labyrinth ofDublin’s life.His transformations• From a shy little boy to a brightstudent who understands socialinteractions.• From innocence to corruption,from an unrepentant sinner to adevout Catholic.• From a fanatical religiousness, toa new devotion to art andbeauty.2. Portrait: Stephen Dedalus, the heroJames Joyce – UlyssesOnly Connect ... New Directions
• Third-person narrative though Joyce does not tell what ishappening but rather tries to show what is happening withoutexplaining the events that he is showing.• The narrative not continuous but fragmented, with gapsin the chronology.3. Portrait: narrative techniqueJames Joyce – UlyssesOnly Connect ... New Directions
• Every narrative detail filtered through Stephensconsciousness.• Use of the experimental stream-of-consciousness technique to let the reader see, hear and feel what Stephen is experiencing asthe action unfolds.• Different languages and styles linked to each phase ofDedalus’s evolution.3. Portrait: narrative techniqueJames Joyce – UlyssesOnly Connect ... New Directions
• Content Stephenremembers his school days.• Language Stephen is ababy so he uses a naivevocabulary and childishexpressions.4. Portrait: “Once upon a time...”Clongowes Wood CollegeJames Joyce – UlyssesOnly Connect ... New Directions(Chapter 1)
• Stephen’s first song:The wild rose blossoms / Onthe little Green Place red = Irish patriotism.green = the Irish countryside.• His third song:Pull out his eyes / Apologise is a sort of epiphany itforeshadows his futurestruggle against authority.4. Portrait: “Once upon a time...”James Joyce – UlyssesOnly Connect ... New DirectionsClongowes Wood College(Chapter 1)
The importance of the settingthe beach. The epiphany the image ofthe wading girl reveals Stephen’stransition from the belief in God to abelief in aesthetic beauty. Poetic language expressionslinked to sight and hearing, severalmusical devices. Free direct speech.5. Portrait: “Where was he...”James Joyce – UlyssesOnly Connect ... New DirectionsAn Irish beach(Chapter 4)
Published in 1922.Setting in time a single day,Thursday 16th June, 1904.The setting in place Dublin.A detailed account of ordinary life onan ordinary day.The theme is moral human lifemeans suffering but also strugglingto seek the good.6. UlyssesJames Joyce – UlyssesOnly Connect ... New DirectionsUlysses, London, Egoist Press, 1922 (first English edition,printed in France).
Leopold Bloom Joycescommon man; he stands for thewhole of mankind. Molly Bloom Leopold’s wife; shestands for flesh, sensuality,fecundity. Stephen Dedalus pure intellect;he embodies every young manseeking maturity.7. Ulysses: charactersJames Joyce – UlyssesOnly Connect ... New DirectionsPoster for Sean Walsh’s Bloom (2003)
Odyssey a structural framework forUlysses. Characters and events arranged aroundHomeric model Leopold = OdysseusMolly = PenelopeStephen = Telemachus• Ulysses is divided into Telemachiad (chapters 1-3)Odyssey (chapters 4-15)Nostos (chapters 16-18)8. Ulysses: the relation to OdysseyJames Joyce – UlyssesOnly Connect ... New DirectionsHead of Odysseus from a Greek 2nd century BC marblegroup representing Odysseus blinding Polyphemus, found atthe villa of Tiberius at Sperlonga.
It allowed the parallel with the Odyssey and provided the book witha symbolic meaning. Homer’s myth used to express the universal in the particular. It created a new form of realism.9. Ulysses: the mythical methodo psychologyo ethnologyo anthropologyIt was linked to the progress made by:James Joyce – UlyssesOnly Connect ... New Directions
The stream of consciousness techniqueThe cinematic techniqueDramatic dialogueJuxtaposition of eventsQuestion and answersThe language rich in puns, paradoxes, images, interruptions, symbols,slang expressions; different linguistic registers to give voice to theunspoken activity of the mind.10. Ulysses: a revolutionary proseCollage techniqueJames Joyce – UlyssesOnly Connect ... New Directions
• Use of interior monologue 2 levels of narration.1stlevel: actions narrated from the outside neutral pointof view.2ndlevel: Leopold’s thoughts Bloom’s point of viewThe action takes place in his mind.There is no difference between past, present and future.11. Ulysses: The Funeral Part IIILeopold attends a funeral.James Joyce – UlyssesOnly Connect ... New Directions
Use of extreme interior monologue.Molly’s thoughts are free to move backwards (“theycalled it on…”) and forwards in time (“shall I wear…”).Complete absence of punctuation and introductionsto people and events, spelling and grammar mistakes they give voice to her flow of thoughts.12. Ulysses: Molly’s monologueJames Joyce – UlyssesOnly Connect ... New Directions
Victorian novel UlyssesSetting in time andplaceVictorian towns(London); EnglishcountrysideDublinNarrative technique Third-person narrativetechniqueStream-of-consciousnesstechniqueSubject matter Realistic, naturalistic The character’s mindCharacters Presented from theoutsidePresented from theinsideLanguage Realistic and concrete Language of the mind13. Ulysses and the Victorian novelJames Joyce – UlyssesOnly Connect ... New Directions
16th June. It is a celebration of James Joyce’slife and masterpiece Ulysses. During this celebration, Bloom’sroute through the streets of Dublinis followed by participants in thefestival, with readings along the way.14. BloomsdayOther locations from Joyces pages are visited, films are shown and theTheatre Company brings Joyce to the city streets and squares.This festival goes on for a week.James Joyce – UlyssesOnly Connect ... New DirectionsPeople celebrating Bloomsday in Dublin.
It is the story of a night, a dream, a“night-maze”. It contains the whole human history,from creation to Judgment day in theguise of comic events linked to a familyliving in the western suburbs of Dublin.15. Finnegans WakeJames Joyce – UlyssesThe plotOnly Connect ... New DirectionsThe first edition of Finnegans Wake.
James Joyce – Ulysses15. Finnegans Wake As the Finnegan of an old Irish ballad,the father, Earwicker, goes to bed afterdrinking too much and is tormented by aseries of dreams. No beginning and end = CIRCULARSTRUCTUREThe plotOnly Connect ... New DirectionsThe first edition of Finnegans Wake.
The title• It comes from an old Irish ballad, Finnegan’s wake.• It is a pun = fin (French) + again = end and beginning.• If the apostrophe is restored, Finnegan’s Wake = the wake ofFinnegan, Finnegan is awake again.15. Finnegans WakeJames Joyce – UlyssesOnly Connect ... New Directions
Structure•Use of analogy and parallel, as in “Ulysses”.•Vico’s theory of history provides the structure Man’s history proceeds cyclically in 3 phases1) Theocratic religion, family.2) Aristocratic heroes.3) Democratic cities, laws followed by anarchy, chaos.Then the cycles begin again.•Joyce followed this structure 3 books + a final short book where there isa collapse.15. Finnegans WakeJames Joyce – UlyssesOnly Connect ... New Directions
Characters• Defined by their functions, not qualities.• Fixed pattern of relationship (family).15. Finnegans WakeJames Joyce – UlyssesOnly Connect ... New Directions
Style•Logic of a dream characters often exchanged, an idea can takedifferent meanings.•No customary surface.•Continuous word-play, verbal extravagance, puns, use of differentlanguages.•Harmonious words = the novel has to be read aloud.•Sentences of enormous length.•Joyce’s aim to express how things are at night.15. Finnegans WakeJames Joyce – UlyssesOnly Connect ... New Directions