Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Hospital aquired infections

545 views

Published on

TOPIC: Control of Hospital Acquired Infections
المحاضر: أ.د. علي عبداللاه عبدالرحمن ( جامعة طيبه)
SPEAKER: prof. Ali A. Abdulrahman
(Prof. of microbiology & Immunology Taibah University)

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

Hospital aquired infections

  1. 1. ‫الحمد ل رب العالمين والصل ة والسل م‬ ‫على أشرف المرسلين وخاتم النبيين‬ ‫سيدنا محمد صلى ال عليه وسلم‬‫المؤمن القوي خير وأحب إلي ال‬ ‫من المؤمن الضعيف وفي كل خير‬
  2. 2. CONTROL OFHOSPITAL ACQUIRED INFECTIONS
  3. 3. Being alert More than 2 million persons affected a yearA 10% of all hospitalized patients(Fourth leading cause of death (44,000-98,000Cost hospitals $17-$29 billion annuallyAverage number of extra hospital days – 4Average additional charge – excess of $2,000 April, 2011
  4. 4. Abdominal Operation
  5. 5. Microbiologist- leading role in prevention becausespecimens from the patient of allclinicians are processed in the laboratory-In a better position to discover thehospital - acquired infection andinvestigate its extent and treatment (Infection Control Program(
  6. 6. Air infection (contamination(handkerchief clothing dust hand clothing floor
  7. 7. Tracking NI has become difficult Shorter inpatient stays than microbial incubation period (e.g. S. aureus wound infections( Surveillance systems are optional to hospitals March, 2010
  8. 8. Medical procedure with NI
  9. 9. Renal dialysis
  10. 10. Pseudomonas infection in a burn wound
  11. 11. Growth fromcontaminated objects
  12. 12. Candida albicans colonizing a fibrin clot In heart valves Candida albicans
  13. 13. Biofilm colonization a cardiac pacemakerStaph aureus
  14. 14. Staph infected silicon catheter
  15. 15. Why now? Increased use of antimicrobials create resistant bacterial strains Hospital personnel fail to follow basic infection control. ICUs, asepsis is done in a rush of crisis care Patients in hospitals are increasingly immunocompromisedApril, 2009
  16. 16. Bacterial ResistanceIncreasing as epidemiological& clinical problem to patientsCurrent antimicrobial agentslose their usefulness inprevention & treatment inhospitalsGenetic: chromosomal,plasmids - conjugationNongenetic: spontaneous
  17. 17. Antibiotics resistances to NI SensitiveResistant sensitive
  18. 18. % frequently isolated pathogens
  19. 19. % frequently isolated pathogens (Cont’)
  20. 20. Other precipitating factors -Transplants -Blood transfusions -More people undergoing invasive surgery -Infrastructure repairs and renovations as hospital facilities age
  21. 21. Sources ofnosocomial infectionsHospital water supply – no guidelinesexist Buildup of biofilm and corrosion of distribution lines Aging distribution systems and water stagnation Strains of pneumonia known to survive in water tanks 1 oocyst of Cryptosporidium parvum/1000 L of drinking water could cause 6000 infections per year in a city the size of New York
  22. 22. Sources of nosocomial infections (Cont’)Unclean hands or glovesEquipment (endoscope,respiratory equipment, tube feedbags) contaminated by bacteria-infested water or impropersterilizationContaminated environmentalsurfaces (sinks, drains)inadequately cleaned
  23. 23. NI control not limited to bacteria Cutback in hospital expenses – laxity in pest control Number of mice increase noticed – crackdown with poison and glue boards Mice decrease noticed – emergence of large, slow-flying, iridescent flies in the hospital Soon after maggots discovered in the nostrils of IC patientsMarch, 2011
  24. 24. NI control not limited to bacteria (Cont’)Extensive mice infestation of thecafeteria and canteen. Had not beencleaned for more than a year.Numerous carcasses found. Onemouse carcass can providesustenance for 100 larvae to grow tomaturity.
  25. 25. Appropriate emphases on surveillance activities and vigorous control efforts At least one fulltime infection- control professional per 250 beds An expert hospital epidemiologist Feedback of surgical wound infection rates to practicing surgeonsMarch, 2009
  26. 26. Mouse traps preferred over glueboardsAvoid open cavity surgery – moreemphases on microscopicproceduresImprove design of invasivedevices, development ofnoninvasive monitoring systemsStrict antibiotic control programsRoutine maintenance of watersupplyWash smart, not hardClean, clean, clean
  27. 27. ‫عرض أمثلة لتطبيقات على التعليم المستمر بالخارج‬ ‫1- على مستوى الجامعة‬ ‫2- علي مستوي المدينة و المملكة‬ ‫3- التعاون مع المستشفيات ومشروعات بحثية‬ ‫4- التعاون مع المراكز الصحية ووزارة الصحة‬ ‫5- مع عامة الناس‬
  28. 28. ‫عرض أمثلة لتطبيقات على التعليم المستمر بالخارج‬ ‫1- على مستوى الجامعة‬ ‫2- علي مستوي المدينة و المملكة‬ ‫4- التعاون مع المراكز الصحية ووزارة الصحة‬ ‫5- مع عامة الناس‬
  29. 29. ‫عرض أمثلة لتطبيقات على التعليم المستمر بالخارج‬ ‫1- على مستوى الجامعة‬ ‫2- علي مستوي المدينة و المملكة‬ ‫3- التعاون مع المستشفيات ومشروعات بحثية‬ ‫4- التعاون مع المراكز الصحية ووزارة الصحة‬ ‫5- مع عامة الناس‬
  30. 30. ‫عرض أمثلة لتطبيقات على التعليم المستمر بالخارج‬ ‫1- على مستوى الجامعة‬ ‫2- علي مستوي المدينة و المملكة‬ ‫4- التعاون مع المراكز الصحية ووزارة الصحة‬ ‫5- مع عامة الناس‬
  31. 31. ‫علةقة متلمزمة الشريان التاج الحادة بالعدوي‬ Anti H. pylori ABs Anti CM V ABs 100Antibody Value (%) 80 60 40 20 0 Cases Control
  32. 32. Hospital of New UtopiaBioscanners that records people’shealth signature when walkingthrough the door.First floor of hospitals devoted todecontaminating visitors andinbound patients.ICU centers are built separate fromthe rest of the hospital, and everyICU bed is a self contained bubble.Sterile water for everyone.March, 2008
  33. 33. Inanmate sources & vehicles of NI
  34. 34. Precautions againstaccidental needle sticks
  35. 35. Blood precautions for HIV infection
  36. 36. Specimen collection box
  37. 37. Disinfectants & antiseptics used in hospital
  38. 38. Recommended biosafety levels Safety Practices & Safety Equipment Facilities Level Techniques 1 2 3 4
  39. 39. Infection control policy Air
  40. 40. Blood cultures
  41. 41. Control of hospital infectionInfection controlcommittee. Procedure forinfection control. Surveillance system.
  42. 42. Video
  43. 43. Thank you

×