Corona virus


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Update, Case Definitions, and Guidance MERS Update
By Dr.Moh'd Alamin.Head of infection control, ER doctor, Meeqat Hospital.

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Corona virus

  2. 2. ?What is MERSCDC continues to work closely with the WorldHealth Organization (WHO) and other partnersto better understand the public health riskMiddle East Respiratorypresented by-). MERSCoV-Coronavirus (MERSSyndromeCoV used to be called “novel coronavirus,” or“nCoV
  3. 3. What is the new humancoronavirus?A novel coronavirus was identified in 2012 asthe cause of respiratory illness in people. Thenew virus is a beta coronavirus. It is differentfrom any other coronavirus previously found inpeople.
  4. 4. Is this virus the same as theSARS virus?the samenotisnovel coronavirusNo. Thevirus that caused severe acute respiratorysyndrome (SARS) in 2003. However, like theSARS virus, the novel coronavirus is mostsimilar to those found in bats. CDC is stilllearning about this new virus.
  5. 5. The first cluster of two casesThe first cluster of two cases, both fatal,occurred near Amman, Jordan, in April 2012.Stored samples from these two cases testedpositive retrospectively for the novelcoronavirus. This cluster was temporallyassociated with cases of illness amongworkers in a hospital
  6. 6. A second clusterA second cluster occurred in October 2012, inSaudi Arabia. Of the four individuals in thehousehold, three were laboratory-confirmedcases, two of them died
  7. 7. MERS Cases and Deaths,April 2012 - May 2013 Current as of June 11, 2013 Countries Cases (Deaths) France 2 (1) Italy 3 (0) Jordan 2 (2) Qatar 2 (0) Saudi Arabia 40 (26) Tunisia 2 (0) United Kingdom (UK) 3 (2) United Arab Emirates (UAE) 1 (1) Total 55 (32)
  8. 8. MERS Cases and Deaths,April 2012 - PresentCountries Cases (Deaths)France 2 (1)Italy 3 (0)Jordan 2 (2)Qatar 2 (0)Saudi Arabia 53 (32)Tunisia 2 (0)United Kingdom (UK) 3 (2)United Arab Emirates(UAE)1 (1)Total 68 (38)Current as of June 21, 2013, 9:00 AM EDT
  9. 9. -The original source of MERS,CoVThe original source of MERS-CoV, routes oftransmission to humans, and mode of human-to-human transmission have not beendetermined. Genetic sequencing to date hasdetermined the virus is most closely related tocoronaviruses detected in bats. CDC iscontinuing to collaborate with WHO andaffected countries to better characterize theepidemiology of MERS-CoV infection inhumans.
  10. 10. What are the symptoms of novelcoronavirus infection?Most people who got infected with the novelcoronavirus developed severe acuterespiratory illness with symptoms of fever,cough, and shortness of breath. Somepeople were reported as having a mildrespiratory illness
  11. 11. Case Definitions Patient Under Investigation(PUI)
  12. 12. Patient Under Investigation(PUI) A person with an acute respiratory infection,which may include fever (≥ 38°C , 100.4°F)and cough; AND suspicion of pulmonary parenchymal disease(e.g., pneumonia or acute respiratory distresssyndrome based on clinical or radiologicalevidence of consolidation); AND history of travel from the Arabian Peninsula orneighboring countries* within 10 days; AND
  13. 13. Probable Case A person fitting the definition above of a “PatientUnder Investigation” with clinical, radiological, orhistopathological evidence of pulmonaryparenchyma disease (e.g. pneumonia or ARDS)but no possibility of laboratory confirmation eitherbecause the patient or samples are not availableor there is no testing available for other respiratoryinfections, AND close contact with a laboratory confirmed case,AND not already explained by any other infection oretiology, including all clinically indicated tests forcommunity-acquired pneumonia according to localmanagement guidelines.
  14. 14. Confirmed Case A person with laboratory confirmation ofinfection with the novel coronavirus.
  15. 15. Does the virus spread from personto person?The virus has been shown to spread betweenpeople who are in close contact.Transmission from infected patients tohealthcare personnel has also beenobserved. Clusters of cases in Saudi Arabia,Jordan, the UK and France are beinginvestigated.
  16. 16. modes of transmission There is clear evidence of human-to-humantransmission, possibly involving differentmodes of transmission such as droplet andcontact transmission. But further studies arerequired to better understand the risks. Theefficiency of person-to-person transmission ofnovel coronavirus is not well characterized.
  17. 17. Can I still travel to countries in the ArabianPeninsula or neighboring countriesYes. WHO and CDC have not issued travelhealth warnings for any country related tonovel coronavirus
  18. 18. What if I recently traveled tocountries in the Arabian Peninsulaorneighboring countries and got sick?If you develop a fever and symptoms oflower respiratory illness, such as cough orshortness of breath, within 10 days aftertraveling from countries in the Arabian, you)1(Peninsula or neighboring countriesshould see your healthcare provider andmention your recent travel
  19. 19. What are the treatments? There are no specific treatments forillnesses caused by the novelcoronavirus. Medical care issupportive and to help relievesymptoms.
  20. 20. Is there a lab test?Lab tests (polymerase chain reaction orPCR) for the novel coronavirus are available atCDC and other international labs. Otherwise,these tests are not routinely available
  21. 21. What should healthcareproviders and healthdepartments doFor recommendations and guidance on thecase definitions; infection control, includingpersonal protective equipment guidance; caseinvestigation; and specimen collection andshipment,
  22. 22. Infection controlrecommendations for healthcaresettingsUntil the transmission characteristics of thenovel coronavirus are better understood,patients under investigation and probable andconfirmed cases should be managedaccording to CDC’s infection controlrecommendations for the coronavirus thatcaused SARS.
  23. 23. For Healthcare ProvidersInfection control recommendations forhealthcare settingsStandard, contact, and airborne precautions arerecommended for management of hospitalizedpatients with known or suspected MERS-CoVinfection. These recommendations areconsistent with those recommended for thecoronavirus that caused severe acuterespiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003. Therecommendations are based on availableinformation (as of June 10, 2013) and will be re-evaluated and updated as needed when newinformation becomes available